The toxicity profile of HIDROX (Hydrolyzed Aqueous Olive Pulp Extract; OPE) was characterized in a series of toxicology studies. A limit dosage of 2000 mg/kg produced no toxicity in mice (acute oral NOAEL: 2000 mg/kg). In rats, an acute oral NOAEL of 2000 mg/kg was established, based on reductions in weight gains in both sexes at 5000 mg/kg. Reduced gains in female rats at 1500 and 2000 mg/kg were not significantly different from control values. Daily oral dosages of 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg/day for 90 days produced small decreases in body weight gains at 2000 mg/kg/day in the male rats and in all groups of female rats. Feed consumption was comparable to controls. There were no adverse clinical, hematologic, biochemical, organ weight or gross necropsy effects. Focal, minimal or mild hyperplasia of the mucosal squamous epithelium of the limiting ridge of the forestomach occurred in some rats at 2000 mg/kg/day; this change was attributed to local irritation by repeated intubation of large volumes of viscous, granular dosing suspension. A NOAEL of 2000 mg/kg/day was established for the 90-day study, based on the lack of significant adverse effects. Toxicokinetic data indicated that hydroxytyrosol (HT, the major component of OPE) was rapidly absorbed. Mean concentrations were measurable through 1 to 4 hours (t(last)) at 1000 and 1500 mg/kg/day and through 8 hours at 2000 mg/kg/day. Dosages of OPE ranging from 500 to 2000 mg/kg/day did not adversely affect any of the mating, fertility, delivery or litter parameters investigated in an oral rat dosage-range reproduction study. Adverse effects were also absent in a rat developmental toxicity study in which pregnant dams were treated with 1000, 1500 or 2000 mg/kg/day on days 6 through 20 of gestation. Plasma levels for pregnant and lactating rats were comparable to non-pregnant rats; minimal levels crossed the placenta. Quantifiable levels were not identified in maternal milk or plasma from nursing pups. A bacterial reverse mutation and a CHO chromosome aberration assay revealed evidence of mutagenic activity at high dosages with S9 metabolic activation. However, three rat micronucleus evaluations performed after single and repeated (28-day) dosages of up to 2000 mg/kg/day and dosages of 5000 mg/kg/day for 29 days resulted in negative findings; therefore, OPE was not considered to be mutagenic in this in vivo assay.
Caffeine is a methylated xanthine that acts as a mild central nervous system stimulant. It is present in many beverages, including coffee, tea, and colas, as well as chocolate. Caffeine constitutes 1-2% of roasted coffee beans, 3.5% of fresh tea leaves, and approximately 2% of mate leaves (Spiller, '84; Graham, '84a,b). Many over-the-counter medications, such as cold and allergy tablets, headache medicines, diuretics, and stimulants also contain caffeine, although they lead to relatively minimal intake (FDA, '86). In epidemiological studies, it is assumed that one cup of coffee contains < or =100 mg of caffeine, and soft drinks, such as colas, contain 10-50 mg of caffeine per 12-ounce serving. The per-capita consumption of caffeine from all sources is estimated to be about 3-7 mg/kg per day, or approximately 200 mg/day (Barone and Roberts, '96). Consumption of caffeinated beverages during pregnancy is quite common (Hill et al., '77) and is estimated to be approximately 144 mg/day, or 2.4 mg/kg for a 60-kg human (Morris and Weinstein, '81). However, pregnant women appear to consume slightly less than do other adults, approximately 1 mg/kg per day (Barone and Roberts, '96). This decrease may be interrelated with taste aversion (Hook, '76; Little, '82). The medical literature contains many varied references that appear to indicate that human adverse reproductive/developmental effects are produced by caffeine. If caffeine indeed causes such effects, the reproductive consequences could be very serious because caffeine-containing foods and beverages are consumed by most of the human populations of the world, and consumption in the United States is estimated to be 4.5-kg/person/year (Narod et al., '91). Therefore, the medical literature dealing with developmental and reproductive risks of caffeine was reviewed, and the biological plausibility of the epidemiological and animal findings, as well as the methods and conclusions of previous investigators, were evaluated. The epidemiological studies describe exposures of women to caffeine during pregnancy, as well as the occurrence of congenital malformations, fetal growth retardation, small-for-date babies, miscarriages (spontaneous abortions), behavioral effects, and maternal fertility problems that presumably resulted from the caffeine consumption. A few epidemiological studies were concerned with the genetic effects of preconception exposures to caffeine. Animal studies, conducted mostly in pregnant rats and mice, were designed to produce malformations. The objectives of the present review are to summarize the findings from the various clinical and animals studies, objectively discuss the merits and/or faults inherent in the studies and establish a global reproductive risk assessment for caffeine consumption in humans during pregnancy. It should be noted that evaluation of the developmental risks of caffeine based solely on epidemiological studies is difficult because the findings are inconsistent. Even more important, is the fact that caffeine users are subject to multip...
The maternal and developmental NOAELs for lenalidomide are 3 mg/kg/day. Unlike thalidomide, lenalidomide affected embryo-fetal development only at maternally toxic dosages, confirming that structure-activity relationships may not predict maternal or developmental effects. No fetal malformations were attributable to lenalidomide.
In a two-generation study of dibromoacetic acid (DBA), Crl SD rats (30 rats/sex/group/generation) were provided DBA in drinking water at 0 (reverse osmosis-deionized water), 50, 250, and 650 ppm (0, 4.4 to 11.6, 22.4 to 55.6, and 52.4 to 132.0 mg/kg/day, respectively; human intake approximates 0.1 microg/kg/day [0.0001 mg/kg/day]). Observations included viability, clinical signs, water and feed consumption, body and organ weights, histopathology, and reproductive parameters (mating, fertility, abortions, premature deliveries, durations of gestation, litter sizes, sex ratios and viabilities, maternal behaviors, reproductive organ weights, sperm parameters and implantation sites, sexual maturation). Histopathological evaluations were performed on at least 10 P and F1 rats/sex at 0 and 650 ppm (gross lesions, testes, intact epididymis; 10 F1 dams at 0, 250, and 650 ppm for primordial follicles). Developmental observations included implantations, pup numbers, sexes, viabilities, body weights, morphology, and reproductive performance. At 50 ppm and higher, both sexes and generations had increased absolute and relative liver and kidneys weights, and female rats in both generations had reduced absolute and relative adrenal weights; adrenal changes were probably associated with physiological changes in water balance. The livers and kidneys (10/sex/group/generation) had no histopathological changes. Other minimal effects at 50 ppm were reduced water consumption and a transient reduction in body weight. At 250 and 650 ppm, DBA reduced parental water consumption, body weight gains, body weights, feed consumption, and pup body weights. P and F1 generation male rats at 250 and 650 ppm had altered sperm production (retained step 19 spermatids in stages IX and X tubules sometimes associated with residual bodies) and some epididymal tubule changes (increased amounts of exfoliated spermatogenic cells/residual bodies in epididymal tubules, atrophy, and hypospermia), although inconsistently and at much lower incidences. Unilateral abnormalities of the epididymis (small or absent epididymis) at 650 ppm in four F1 generation male rats were considered reproductive tract malformations. The no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and reproductive and developmental NOAELs for DBA were at least 50 ppm (4.5 to 11.6 mg/kg/day), 45,000 to 116,000 times the human adult exposure level. Reproductive and developmental effects did not occur in female rats exposed to DBA concentrations as high as 650 ppm. Based on the high multiples of human exposure required to produce effects in male rats, DBA should not be identified as a human reproductive or developmental risk.
An extensive computer search was conducted, and a comprehensive overview of the current status of alternatives to animal eye irritation tests was obtained. A search of Medline and Toxline databases (1988 to present) was supplemented with references from sources regarding in vitro eye irritation. Particular attention was paid to soap and detergent products and related ingredients. Eighty-five references are included in the review; the in vitro assays are categorized, and their predictive values for assessing acute ocular irritation are evaluated and compared with the Draize rabbit eye irritation assay and with each other. The present review shows that the increased activity of scientists from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies has resulted in substantial progress in developing alternative in vitro procedures and that a number of large, interlaboratory evaluations and international workshops have assisted in the selection process. However, none of these methodologies has obtained acceptance for regulatory classification purposes. Conclusions drawn from this review include that (a) no single in vitro assay is considered capable of replacing the Draize eye irritation test; (b) the chorioallantoic membrane vascular assay (CAMVA) or the hen egg test-chorioallantoic membrane test (HET-CAM), the chicken or bovine enucleated eye test, the neutral red and plasminogen activation assays for cytotoxicity, and the silicon microphysiometer appear to have the greatest potential as screening tools for eye irritation: and (c) choosing a specific assay or series of assays will depend on the type of agent tested and the impact of false-negative or falsepositive results. New assays will continue to be developed and should be included in future evaluations, when sufficient data are available.
The developmental toxicity of linalool, a widely used fragrance ingredient, was evaluated in presumed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (25/group). Oral dosages of 0, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day linalool were administered by gavage on gestational days 7 to 17. The presence of spermatozoa and/or a copulatory plug in situ was designated as gestational day 0. Rats were observed for viability, clinical signs, body weights, and feed consumption. Caesarean sectioning and necropsy occurred on gestational day 21. Uteri were examined for number and distribution of implantations, live and dead fetuses, and early and late resorptions. Numbers of corpora lutea were also recorded. Fetuses were weighed and examined for gender, gross external changes, and soft tissue or skeletal alterations. There were no maternal deaths, clinical signs, or gross lesions that were considered related to linalool. During the dosage period, mean relative feed consumption was significantly reduced by 7% and mean body weight gains were reduced by 11% at 1000 mg/kg/day. During the postdosage period, feed consumption values at 1000 mg/kg/day were significantly higher than vehicle control values, which corresponded to the increase in body weight gains during this period. Caesarean section and litter parameters, as well as fetal alterations, were not affected by linalool at any of the three dosages tested. On the basis of these data, the maternal no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of linalool is 500 mg/kg/day, whereas the developmental NOAEL is > or = 1000 mg/kg/day. It is concluded that linalool is not a developmental toxicant in rats at maternal doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day.
Bromodichloromethane (BDCM) was tested for reproductive toxicity in a two-generation study in CRL SD rats. Thirty rats/sex/ group/generation were continuously provided BDCM in drinking water at 0 (control carrier, reverse osmosis membrane-processed water), 50,150, and 450 ppm (0, 4.1 to 12.6, 11.6 to 40.2, and 29.5 to 109.0 mg/kg/day, respectively). Adult human intake approximates 0.8 microg/kg/day (0.0008 mg/kg/day). P and F1 rats were observed for general toxicity (viability, clinical signs, water and feed consumption, body weights, organ weights [also three weanling Fl and F2 pups/sex/litter], histopathology [10/sex, 0- and 450-ppm exposure groups]) and reproduction (mating, fertility, abortions, premature deliveries, durations of gestation, litter sizes, sex ratios, viabilities, maternal behaviors, reproductive organ weights [also three weanling Fl and F2 pups/sex/ litter], sperm parameters, and implantations. F1 rats were evaluated for age at vaginal patency or preputial separation. Ten P and F1 rats/sex from the 0- and 450-ppm exposure groups and rats at 50 and 150 ppm with reduced fertility were evaluated for histopathology (gross lesions, testes, intact epididymis, all F1 dams for number of primordial follicles). Developmental parameters in offspring included implantation and pup numbers, sexes, viabilities, body weights, gross external alterations, and reproductive parameters (Fl adults). Toxicologically important, statistically significant effects at 150 and/or 450 ppm included mortality and clinical signs associated with reduced absolute and relative water consumption, reduced body weights and weight gains, and reduced absolute and relative feed consumption (P and F1 rats). Significantly reduced body weights at 150 and 450 ppm were associated with reduced organ weights and increased organ weight ratios (% body and/or brain weight). Histopathology did not identify abnormalities. Small delays in sexual maturation (preputial separation, vaginal patency) and more Fl rats with prolonged diestrus were also attributable to severely reduced pup body weights. Mating, fertility, sperm parameters, and primordial ovarian follicular counts were unaffected. The no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and the reproductive and developmental NOAELs for BDCM were at least 50 ppm (4.1 to 12.6 mg/kg/day), 5125 to 15,750 times the human adult exposure level, if delayed sexual maturational associated with severely reduced body weights is considered reproductive toxicity. If considered general toxicity, reproductive and developmental NOAELs for BDCM are greater than 450 ppm (29.5 to 109.0 mg/kg/day), or 36,875 to 136,250 times the human adult exposure level. Regardless, these data indicate that BDCM should not be identified as a risk to human reproductive performance or development of human conceptuses.
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