Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ, and our knowledge of this secretory tissue, in recent years, has led us to completely rethink how our body functions and becomes dysregulated with weight gain. Human adipose tissue appears to act as a multifunctional secretory organ with the capacity to control energy homoeostasis through peripheral and central regulation of energy homoeostasis. It also plays an important role in innate immunity. However, the capability to more than double its original mass to cope with positive energy balance in obesity leads to many pathogenic changes. These changes arise within the adipose tissue as well as inducing secondary detrimental effects on other organs like muscle and liver, including chronic low-grade inflammation mediated by adipocytokines (adipokine inflammation). This inflammation is modulated by dietary factors and nutrients including glucose and lipids, as well as gut bacteria in the form of endotoxin or LPS. The aim of this current review is to consider the impact of nutrients such as glucose and lipids on inflammatory pathways, specifically within adipose tissue. Furthermore, how nutrients such as these can influence adipokine inflammation and consequently insulin resistance directly through their effects on secretion of adipocytokines (TNFa, IL6 and resistin) as well as indirectly through increases in endotoxin is discussed.
OBJECTIVEDiabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in type 2 diabetes and increases oxidative stress. Hence, OSA could promote the development and progression of DN.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSThis was a cohort study in adults with type 2 diabetes. Patients with known OSA or ESRD were excluded. DN was defined as the presence of albuminuria or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. DN progression was based on eGFR measurements. OSA was defined as apnea hypopnea index (AHI) ≥5 events/h. Serum nitrotyrosine abundance (a marker of nitrosative stress) was measured by ELISA.RESULTSA total of 224 patients were included. OSA and DN prevalence was 64.3 and 40.2, respectively. DN prevalence was higher in patients with OSA (OSA+) compared with those without OSA (OSA−) (49.3% vs. 23.8%, P < 0.001). After adjustment, OSA (odds ratio 2.64 [95% CI 1.13–6.16], P = 0.02) remained independently associated with DN. After an average follow-up of 2.5 (0.7) years, eGFR decline was greater in OSA+ compared with OSA− patients (median −6.8% [interquartile range −16.1 to 2.2] vs. −1.6% [−7.7 to 5.3%], P = 0.002). After adjusting, both baseline OSA (B = −3.8, P = 0.044) and AHI (B = −4.6, P = 0.02) remained independent predictors of study-end eGFR. Baseline serum nitrotyrosine abundance (B = −0.24, P = 0.015) was an independent predictor of study-end eGFR after adjustment.CONCLUSIONSOSA is independently associated with DN in type 2 diabetes. eGFR declined faster in patients with OSA. Nitrosative stress may provide a pathogenetic link between OSA and DN. Interventional studies assessing the impact of OSA treatment on DN are needed.
eral action of irisin improves glucose homeostasis and increases energy expenditure, with no data on a central role of irisin in metabolism. These studies sought to examine 1) presence of irisin in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and banked human hypothalamic tissue, 2) serum irisin in maternal subjects across varying adiposities with or without gestational diabetes (GDM), and 3) their respective neonate offspring. CSF, serum, and neonatal cord serum were collected from 91 pregnant women with and without GDM attending for an elective cesarean section [body mass index (BMI): 37.7 Ϯ 7.6 kg/m 2 ; age: 32 Ϯ 8.3 yr]. Irisin was assessed by ELISA and correlated with biochemical and anthropometric data. Irisin expression was examined in human hypothalamus by immunohistochemical staining. Serum irisin in pregnant women was significantly lower in nonobese compared with obese and GDM subjects, after adjusting for BMI, lipids, and glucose. Irisin was present in neonatal cord serum (237 Ϯ 8 ng/ml) and maternal CSF (32 Ϯ 1.5 ng/ml). CSF irisin correlated positively with serum irisin levels from nonobese and obese pregnant women (P Ͻ 0.01), with CSF irisin significantly raised in GDM subjects (P Ͻ 0.05). Irisin was present in human hypothalamic sections in the paraventricular neurons, colocalized with neuropeptide Y. Irisin was detectable in CSF and in paraventricular neurons. Maternal serum irisin was lower in nonobese pregnant women after adjusting for BMI and a number of metabolic parameters. These studies indicate that irisin may have a central role in metabolism in addition to the known peripheral role. Further studies investigating the central action of irisin in human metabolic disease are required.irisin; obesity; gestational diabetes mellitus; leptin EMERGING DATA SUGGEST THAT a newly discovered polypeptide hormone, irisin, a cleaved secreted form of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5), has the potential to increase energy expenditure and improve glucose homeostasis in humans (4,16,31,34). This is particularly significant, since irisin can induce the transformation of white adipocytes into "beige" or "brite" adipocytes, which can ultimately lead to increased mitochondrial respiration (4, 34), with implications for weight loss. Therefore, such studies suggest the potential therapeutic applications of irisin not only in use for weight loss but also to improve glucose metabolism (4). Subsequent research has also revealed that the function of irisin appears to fall beyond its original role noted in muscle (4,9,13,21,23), and the administration of exogenous irisin could theoretically increase energy expenditure during or after weight loss. Recent studies have shown that irisin may also act as an adipokine (21, 25) as well as a potential "neurokine" (9, 12). Although the role of irisin in the brain is unclear, analysis has revealed that FNDC5 knockdown in murine embryonic stem cells reduces neurogenesis (11), whereas pharmacological doses of irisin increase proliferation of mouse hippocampal neuronal cells (20...
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global epidemic with increasing impact on individuals and healthcare providers. Available treatments (such as metformin, sulfonylureas, glitazones, and insulin) have proven unsatisfactory in producing a long-lasting impact on glycemic control. In addition, most of these treatments have undesirable side effects such as weight gain and hypoglycemia. As a result, exploring new treatment targets and new therapies is mandatory in order to treat this condition. The incretin pathway, in particular glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), plays an important pathological role in the development of T2DM, and treatments targeting the incretin system have recently become available. These can mainly be divided into two broad categories; GLP-1 agonists/analogs (exenatide, liraglutide), and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4; the enzyme responsible for rapid inactivation of incretins) inhibitors (sitagliptin, vildagliptin). Saxagliptin is a novel DPP-4 inhibitor that has recently completed phase 3 studies. Saxagliptin is a potent and specific inhibitor of DPP-4 (in comparison with other dipeptidyl peptidase enzymes) that is given once daily. Current data suggest that saxagliptin as monotherapy or in combination with metformin, glyburide, or a glitazone results in significant reductions in fasting and postprandial plasma glucose and hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)). Saxagliptin is well tolerated and does not increase hypoglycemia compared with the placebo, and is probably weight neutral. Saxagliptin will be a new effective drug in the currently available variety of antidiabetic medications for patients with T2DM.
Serum irisin levels were higher in girls than in boys and correlated negatively with HOMA-IR. They were also independently associated with FBG predominantly in girls, suggesting that this hormone may play a crucial role in glucose metabolism from an early age.
A dose-response strategy may not only allow investigation of the impact of foods and nutrients on human health but may also reveal differences in the response of individuals to food ingestion based on their metabolic health status. In a randomized crossover study, we challenged 19 normal-weight (BMI: 20–25 kg/m2) and 18 obese (BMI: >30 kg/m2) men with 500, 1000, and 1500 kcal of a high-fat (HF) meal (60.5% energy from fat). Blood was taken at baseline and up to 6 h postprandially and analyzed for a range of metabolic, inflammatory, and hormonal variables, including plasma glucose, lipids, and C-reactive protein and serum insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and endotoxin. Insulin was the only variable that could differentiate the postprandial response of normal-weight and obese participants at each of the 3 caloric doses. A significant response of the inflammatory marker IL-6 was only observed in the obese group after ingestion of the HF meal containing 1500 kcal [net incremental AUC (iAUC) = 22.9 ± 6.8 pg/mL × 6 h, P = 0.002]. Furthermore, the net iAUC for triglycerides significantly increased from the 1000 to the 1500 kcal meal in the obese group (5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h vs. 6.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h; P = 0.015) but not in the normal-weight group (4.3 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h vs. 4.8 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h; P = 0.31). We propose that caloric dose-response studies may contribute to a better understanding of the metabolic impact of food on the human organism. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01446068.
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