Stroke is among the three leading causes of death worldwide and the most frequent cause of permanent disability. Brain ischemia induces an inflammatory response involving activated complement fragments. Here we show that i.v. Ig (IVIG) treatment, which scavenges complement fragments, protects brain cells against the deleterious effects of experimental ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) and prevents I/R-induced mortality in mice. Animals administered IVIG either 30 min before ischemia or after 3 h of reperfusion exhibited a 50 -60% reduction of brain infarct size and a 2-to 3-fold improvement of the functional outcome. Even a single low dose of IVIG given after stroke was effective. IVIG was protective in the nonreperfusion model of murine stroke as well and did not exert any peripheral effects. Human IgG as well as intrinsic murine C3 levels were significantly higher in the infarcted brain region compared with the noninjured side, and their physical association was demonstrated by immuno-coprecipitation. C5-deficient mice were significantly protected from I/R injury compared with their wild-type littermates. Exposure of cultured neurons to oxygen/ glucose deprivation resulted in increased levels of C3 associated with activation of caspase 3, a marker of apoptosis; both signals were attenuated with IVIG treatment. Our data suggest a major role for complement-mediated cell death in ischemic brain injury and the prospect of using IVIG in relatively low doses as an interventional therapy for stroke.C5a ͉ cerebral cortex apoptosis ͉ ischemic stroke ͉ lymphocyte ͉ microglia
Multi-protein complexes called inflammasomes have recently been identified and shown to contribute to cell death in tissue injury. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is an FDA-approved therapeutic modality used for various inflammatory diseases. The objective of this study is to investigate dynamic responses of the NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes in stroke and to determine whether the NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes can be targeted with IVIg for therapeutic intervention. Primary cortical neurons were subjected to glucose deprivation (GD), oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD) or simulated ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Ischemic stroke was induced in C57BL/6J mice by middle cerebral artery occlusion, followed by reperfusion. Neurological assessment was performed, brain tissue damage was quantified, and NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasome protein levels were evaluated. NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasome components were also analyzed in postmortem brain tissue samples from stroke patients. Ischemia-like conditions increased the levels of NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasome proteins, and IL-1β and IL-18, in primary cortical neurons. Similarly, levels of NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasome proteins, IL-1β and IL-18 were elevated in ipsilateral brain tissues of cerebral I/R mice and stroke patients. Caspase-1 inhibitor treatment protected cultured cortical neurons and brain cells in vivo in experimental stroke models. IVIg treatment protected neurons in experimental stroke models by a mechanism involving suppression of NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasome activity. Our findings provide evidence that the NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes have a major role in neuronal cell death and behavioral deficits in stroke. We also identified NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition as a novel mechanism by which IVIg can protect brain cells against ischemic damage, suggesting a potential clinical benefit of therapeutic interventions that target inflammasome assembly and activity.
Intravenous injection of liposomes can cause significant pulmonary hypertension in pigs, a vasoconstrictive response that provides a sensitive model for the cardiopulmonary distress in humans caused by some liposomal drugs. The reaction was recently shown to be a manifestation of "complement activation-related pseudoallergy" (CARPA; Szebeni J, Fontana JL, Wassef NM, Mongan PD, Morse DS, Dobbins DE, Stahl GL, Bünger R, and Alving CR. Circulation 99: 2302-2309, 1999). In the present study we demonstrate that the composition, size, and administration method of liposomes have significant influence on pulmonary vasoactivity, which varied between instantaneously lethal (following bolus injection of 5 mg lipid) to nondetectable (despite infusion of a 2,000-fold higher dose). Experimental conditions augmenting the pulmonary hypertensive response included the presence of dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol, 71 mol% cholesterol, distearoyl phosphatidylcholine, and hemoglobin in liposomes, increased vesicle size and polydispersity, and bolus injection vs. slow infusion. The vasoactivity of large multilamellar liposomes was reproduced with human C3a, C5a, and xenoreactive immunoglobulins, and it correlated with the complement activating and natural antibody binding potential of vesicles. Unilamellar, monodisperse liposomes with 0.19 +/- 0.10 microm mean diameter had no significant vasoactivity. These data indicate that liposome-induced pulmonary hypertension in pigs is multifactorial, it is due to natural antibody-triggered classic pathway complement activation and it can be prevented by appropriate tailoring of the structure and administration method of vesicles.
High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) prevents immune damage by scavenging complement fragments C3b and C4b. We tested the hypothesis that exogenous immunoglobulin molecules also bind anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a, thereby neutralizing their pro-inflammatory effects. Single-cell calcium measurements in HMC-1 human mast cells showed that a rise in intracellular calcium caused by C3a and C5a was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by IVIG, F(ab)2-IVIG and irrelevant human monoclonal antibody. C3a- and C5a-induced thromboxane (TXB2) generation and histamine release from HMC-1 cells and whole-blood basophils were also suppressed by exogenous immunoglobulins. In a mouse model of asthma, immunoglobulin treatment reduced cellular migration to the lung. Lethal C5a-mediated circulatory collapse in pigs was prevented by pretreatment with F(ab)2-IVIG. Molecular modeling, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and western blot analyses suggested a physical association between anaphylatoxins and the constant region of F(ab)2. This binding could interfere with the role of C3a and C5a in inflammation.
The compact binary system in OJ287 is modelled to contain a spinning primary black hole with an accretion disk and a non-spinning secondary black hole. Using Post Newtonian (PN) accurate equations that include 2.5PN accurate non-spinning contributions, the leading order general relativistic and classical spin-orbit terms, the orbit of the binary black hole in OJ287 is calculated and as expected it depends on the spin of the primary black hole. Using the orbital solution, the specific times when the orbit of the secondary crosses the accretion disk of the primary are evaluated such that the record of observed outbursts from 1913 up to 2007 is reproduced. The timings of the outbursts are quite sensitive to the spin value. In order to reproduce all the known outbursts, including a newly discovered one in 1957, the Kerr parameter of the primary has to be 0.28 ± 0.08. The quadrupole-moment contributions to the equations of motion allow us to constrain the 'no-hair' parameter to be 1.0 ± 0.3 where 0.3 is the one sigma error. This supports the 'black hole no-hair theorem' within the achievable precision.It should be possible to test the present estimate in 2015 when the next outburst is due. The timing of the 2015 outburst is a strong function of the spin: if the spin is 0.36 of the maximal value allowed in general relativity, the outburst begins in early November 2015, while the same event starts in the end of January 2016 if the spin is 0.2.
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