The modest PD effect, short plasma t1/2 and close PK-PD relationship suggest that multiple daily dosing or sustained release formulations at higher doses will be necessary for AZD5438 to achieve sustained inhibition of CDK in human cancers.
Easily accessible normal tissues expressing the same molecular site(s) of drug action as malignant tissue offer an enhanced potential for early proof of anticancer drug mechanism and estimation of the biologically effective dose. Studies were undertaken in healthy male volunteers to assess the tolerability of single and multiple (four in 24 h) 3 mm punch biopsies of the buccal mucosa, and to determine the feasibility of detecting and quantifying a range of proliferation, cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis markers by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for use as potential pharmacodynamic (PD) end points. The biopsy procedure was well tolerated with 100% of volunteers stating that they would undergo single (n ¼ 10) and multiple (n ¼ 12) biopsies again. Total retinoblastoma protein (pRb), phosphorylated pRb (phospho-pRb), total p27, phosphorylated p27 (phospho-p27), phosphorylated-histone H3 (phospho-HH3), p21, p53, Cyclin A, Cyclin E, Ki67 all produced good signal detection, but M30, cleaved caspase 3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling did not. Total pRb, phospho-pRb, total p27 and phospho-p27 were quantified further in a multiple biopsy study to allow components of variability to be addressed to inform future sizing decisions on intervention studies. Neither site of biopsy within the oral cavity, nor the nominal time of biopsy had any significant impact on any of the four markers expression levels. Inter-and intrasubject coefficients of variation (CVs) that could be used to size future intervention studies for pRb, phospho-pRb, total p27 and phospho-p27 were 14, 19, 18 and 16%; and 18, 29, 25 and 19%, respectively. In conclusion, quantitation of such markers in 3 mm buccal punch biopsies would be suitable to explore as PD end points within intervention studies of drugs acting on these pathways.
Patient safety is the absence of preventable harm to a patient during the process of healthcare and is critical to the provision of a quality service. Many National Health Service (NHS) improvement initiatives have been developed in relation to patient safety, resulting in changes in culture, reporting and learning. These include the publication by the NHS England Surgical Never Events taskforce of ‘Standardize, educate, harmonize, commissioning the conditions for safer surgery’ in 2014 which was followed in 2015 by ‘National Safety Standards for Invasive Procedures (NatSSIPs)’. The principles identified in NatSSIPs are now being rolled out to local areas for their interpretation (Local Safety Standards for Invasive Procedures [LocSSIPs]). CPD/Clinical Relevance: The aim of this article is to inform and update the reader on recent NHS England patient safety initiatives as applicable to dentistry, specifically the development of an example LocSSIP for wrong site extraction.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.