Abstract. We present a new approach for the detection of complex events in Wireless Sensor Networks. Complex events are sets of data points that correspond to interesting or unusual patterns in the underlying phenomenon that the network monitors. Our approach is inspired from time-series data mining techniques and transforms a stream of realvalued sensor readings into a symbolic representation. Complex event detection is then performed using distance metrics, allowing us to detect events that are difficult or even impossible to describe using traditional declarative SQL-like languages and thresholds. We have tested our approach with four distinct data sets and the experimental results were encouraging in all cases. We have implemented our approach for the TinyOS and Contiki Operating Systems, for the Sky mote platform.
Recent years have witnessed a rapidly growing interest in query processing in sensor and actuator networks. This is mainly due to the increased awareness of query processing as the most appropriate computational paradigm for a wide range of sensor network applications, such as environmental monitoring. In this paper we propose a second database technology, namely active rules, that provides a natural computational paradigm for sensor network applications which require reactive behavior, such as security management and rapid forest fire response. Like query processing, efficient and effective active rule execution mechanisms have to address several technical challenges including language design, data aggregation, data verification, robustness under topology changes, routing, power management and many more. Nonetheless, active rules change the context and the requirements of these issues and hence a new set of solutions is appropriate. To this end, we outline the implications of active rules for sensor networks and contrast these against query processing. We then proceed to discuss work in progress carried out in project Asene that aims to effectively address these issues. Finally, we introduce our architecture for a decentralized event broker based on the publish/subscribe paradigm and our early design of an ECA language for sensor networks.
Complex Events are sequences of sensor measurements indicating interesting or unusual activity in the monitored process. Such events are ubiquitous in a wide range of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications, yet there does not exist a common mechanism that addresses both the considerable constraints of WSNs and the specific properties of Complex Events. We argue that Complex Events cannot be described using standard threshold-based or composite logic approaches and attempting to represent them as such can lead to unpredictable execution cost while detection accuracy suffers from erroneous recording of observations which are common in WSNs. To address this, we develop a family of Complex Event Detection (CED) algorithms based on online symbolic conversion of sensor readings. With fixed execution cost and modest resource requirements, the CED algorithms cater for exact, approximate, non-parametric, multiple and probabilistic detection that is neither application nor data dependent. Overall, full implementation and simulations provide experimental evidence of the advantages of the proposed approach. We find that the proposed algorithms minimise configuration, promote
The concept of the so-called Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing was introduced in the early nineties as the third wave of computing to follow the eras of the mainframe and the personal computer. Unlike previous technology generations, Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing recedes into the background of everyday life: “it activates the world, makes computers so imbedded, so fitting, so natural, that we use it without even thinking about it, and is invisible, everywhere computing that does not live on a personal device of any sort, but is in the woodwork everywhere” (Weiser 1991). Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing is often referred to using different terms in different contexts. Pervasive, 4G mobile and sentient computing or ambient intelligence also refer to the same computing paradigm. Several technical developments come together to create this novel type of computing, the main ones are summarized in Table 1 (Davies and Gellersen 2002; Satyanarayanan 2001).
The concept of the so-called ubiquitous computing was introduced in the early 1990s as the third wave of computing to follow the eras of the mainframe and the personal computer. Unlike previous technology generations, ubiquitous computing recedes into the background of everyday life: It activates the world, makes computers so imbedded, so fitting, so natural, that we use it without even thinking about it, and is invisible, everywhere computing that does not live on a personal device of any sort, but is in the woodwork everywhere. (Weiser & Brown, 1997, p. 81)
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