Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a mild to moderate respiratory tract infection, however, a subset of patients progress to severe disease and respiratory failure. The mechanism of protective immunity in mild forms and the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 associated with increased neutrophil counts and dysregulated immune responses remain unclear. In a dual-center, two-cohort study, we combined single-cell RNA-sequencing and single-cell proteomics of whole-blood and peripheral-blood mononuclear cells to determine changes in immune cell composition and activation in mild versus severe COVID-19 (242 samples from 109 individuals) over time. HLA-DR hi CD11c hi inflammatory monocytes with an interferon-stimulated gene signature were elevated in mild COVID-19. Severe COVID-19 was marked by occurrence of neutrophil precursors, as evidence of emergency myelopoiesis, dysfunctional mature neutrophils, and HLA-DR lo monocytes. Our study provides detailed insights into the systemic immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and reveals profound alterations in the myeloid cell compartment associated with severe COVID-19.
The landscape of genomic alterations across childhood cancers a list of authors and affiliations appears at the end of the paper. OPENPan-cancer analyses that examine commonalities and differences among various cancer types have emerged as a powerful way to obtain novel insights into cancer biology. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of genetic alterations in a pan-cancer cohort including 961 tumours from children, adolescents, and young adults, comprising 24 distinct molecular types of cancer. Using a standardized workflow, we identified marked differences in terms of mutation frequency and significantly mutated genes in comparison to previously analysed adult cancers. Genetic alterations in 149 putative cancer driver genes separate the tumours into two classes: small mutation and structural/copy-number variant (correlating with germline variants). Structural variants, hyperdiploidy, and chromothripsis are linked to TP53 mutation status and mutational signatures. Our data suggest that 7-8% of the children in this cohort carry an unambiguous predisposing germline variant and that nearly 50% of paediatric neoplasms harbour a potentially druggable event, which is highly relevant for the design of future clinical trials.Cure rates for childhood cancers have increased to about 80% in recent decades, but cancer is still the leading cause of death by disease in the developed world among children over one year of age 1,2 . Furthermore, many children who survive cancer suffer from long-term sequelae of surgery, cytotoxic chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, including mental disabilities, organ toxicities, and secondary cancers 3 . A crucial step in developing more specific and less damaging therapies is the unravelling of the complete genetic repertoire of paediatric malignancies, which differ from adult malignancies in terms of their histopathological entities and molecular subtypes 4 . Over the past few years, many entityspecific sequencing efforts have been launched, but the few paediatric pan-cancer studies thus far have focused only on mutation frequencies, germline predisposition, and alterations in epigenetic regulators  .We have carried out a broad exploration of cancers in children, adolescents, and young adults, by incorporating small mutations and copy-number or structural variants on somatic and germline levels, and by identifying putative cancer genes and comparing them to those previously reported in adult cancers by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) 7 . We have also examined mutational signatures and potential drug targets. The compendium of genetic alterations presented here is available to the scientific community at http://www.pedpancan.com.This integrative analysis includes 24 types of cancer and covers all major childhood cancer entities, many of which occur exclusively in children 8 (Fig. 1, Supplementary Table 1). Ninety-five per cent of the patients in this study were diagnosed during childhood or adolescence (aged 18 years or younger) and 5% as young adults (up to 25 years) (Extended Data ...
The pan-cancer analysis of whole genomes The expansion of whole-genome sequencing studies from individual ICGC and TCGA working groups presented the opportunity to undertake a meta-analysis of genomic features across tumour types. To achieve this, the PCAWG Consortium was established. A Technical Working Group implemented the informatics analyses by aggregating the raw sequencing data from different working groups that studied individual tumour types, aligning the sequences to the human genome and delivering a set of high-quality somatic mutation calls for downstream analysis (Extended Data Fig. 1). Given the recent meta-analysis
In the WHO classification, subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTL) is defined as a distinct type of T-cell
Cellular senescence is a stress-responsive cell-cycle arrest program that terminates the further expansion of (pre-)malignant cells. Key signalling components of the senescence machinery, such as p16, p21 and p53, as well as trimethylation of lysine 9 at histone H3 (H3K9me3), also operate as critical regulators of stem-cell functions (which are collectively termed 'stemness'). In cancer cells, a gain of stemness may have profound implications for tumour aggressiveness and clinical outcome. Here we investigated whether chemotherapy-induced senescence could change stem-cell-related properties of malignant cells. Gene expression and functional analyses comparing senescent and non-senescent B-cell lymphomas from Eμ-Myc transgenic mice revealed substantial upregulation of an adult tissue stem-cell signature, activated Wnt signalling, and distinct stem-cell markers in senescence. Using genetically switchable models of senescence targeting H3K9me3 or p53 to mimic spontaneous escape from the arrested condition, we found that cells released from senescence re-entered the cell cycle with strongly enhanced and Wnt-dependent clonogenic growth potential compared to virtually identical populations that had been equally exposed to chemotherapy but had never been senescent. In vivo, these previously senescent cells presented with a much higher tumour initiation potential. Notably, the temporary enforcement of senescence in p53-regulatable models of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and acute myeloid leukaemia was found to reprogram non-stem bulk leukaemia cells into self-renewing, leukaemia-initiating stem cells. Our data, which are further supported by consistent results in human cancer cell lines and primary samples of human haematological malignancies, reveal that senescence-associated stemness is an unexpected, cell-autonomous feature that exerts its detrimental, highly aggressive growth potential upon escape from cell-cycle blockade, and is enriched in relapse tumours. These findings have profound implications for cancer therapy, and provide new mechanistic insights into the plasticity of cancer cells.
The temporal development of autoantibodies was studied in 1,353 offspring of parents with type 1 diabetes. Islet cell antibodies (ICAs) and autoantibodies to insulin (IAAs), glutamic acid decarboxylase, and IA-2 were measured at birth, 9 months, 2 years, and 5 years of age. At birth, no offspring had islet autoimmunity other than maternally acquired antibodies, which were shown to influence antibody prevalence up to age 6 months. Antibodies detected thereafter were likely to represent a true de novo production, since prevalences were the same for offspring from mothers and fathers with diabetes, antibodies detected at 9 months were almost always confirmed in the 2-year sample and were associated with an increased likelihood of having or developing other antibodies. By 2 years of age, autoantibodies appeared in 11% of offspring, 3.5% having more than one autoantibody. IAAs were detected most frequently, and few had autoantibodies in the absence of IAAs. In 23 offspring with multiple islet autoantibodies, IAAs preceded other antibodies in 10 cases and were first detected concurrently with other antibodies in 12 and after detection of other antibodies in 1. Development of additional antibodies and changes in levels, including decline of IAAs at older age, was frequent. Nine children, all with IAAs and ICAs, developed diabetes. Overall cumulative risk for disease by 5 years of age was 1.8% (95% CI 0.2-3.4) and was 50% (95% CI 19-81) for offspring with more than one autoantibody in their 2-year sample. Autoimmunity associated with childhood diabetes is an early event and a dynamic process. Presence of IAAs is a consistent feature of this autoimmunity, and IAA detection can identify children at risk.
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