Dehydrins are intrinsically disordered plant proteins whose expression is upregulated under conditions of desiccation and cold stress. Their molecular function in ensuring plant survival is not yet known, but several studies suggest their involvement in membrane stabilization. The dehydrins are characterized by a broad repertoire of conserved and repetitive sequences, out of which the archetypical K-segment has been implicated in membrane binding. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of these K-segments, we examined the interaction between lipid membranes and a dehydrin with a basic functional sequence composition: Lti30, comprising only K-segments. Our results show that Lti30 interacts electrostatically with vesicles of both zwitterionic (phosphatidyl choline) and negatively charged phospholipids (phosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidyl serine, and phosphatidic acid) with a stronger binding to membranes with high negative surface potential. The membrane interaction lowers the temperature of the main lipid phase transition, consistent with Lti30's proposed role in cold tolerance. Moreover, the membrane binding promotes the assembly of lipid vesicles into large and easily distinguishable aggregates. Using these aggregates as binding markers, we identify three factors that regulate the lipid interaction of Lti30 in vitro: (1) a pH dependent His on/off switch, (2) phosphorylation by protein kinase C, and (3) reversal of membrane binding by proteolytic digest.
Intraoperative patient registration may significantly affect the outcome of image-guided surgery (IGS). Image-based registration approaches have several advantages over the currently dominant point-based direct contact methods and are used in some industry solutions in image-guided radiation therapy with fixed X-ray gantries. However, technical challenges including geometric calibration and computational cost have precluded their use with mobile C-arms for IGS. We propose a 2D/3D registration framework for intraoperative patient registration using a conventional mobile X-ray imager combining fiducial-based C-arm tracking and graphics processing unit (GPU)-acceleration. The two-stage framework 1) acquires X-ray images and estimates relative pose between the images using a custom-made in-image fiducial, and 2) estimates the patient pose using intensity-based 2D/3D registration. Experimental validations using a publicly available gold standard dataset, a plastic bone phantom and cadaveric specimens have been conducted. The mean target registration error (mTRE) was 0.34 ± 0.04 mm (success rate: 100%, registration time: 14.2 s) for the phantom with two images 90° apart, and 0.99 ± 0.41 mm (81%, 16.3 s) for the cadaveric specimen with images 58.5° apart. The experimental results showed the feasibility of the proposed registration framework as a practical alternative for IGS routines.
SummaryA particular adaptation to survival under limited water availability has been realized in the desiccation-tolerant resurrection plants, which tend to grow in a habitat with seasonal rainfall and long dry periods. One of the best-studied examples is Craterostigma plantagineum. Here we report an unexpected finding: Lindernia brevidens, a close relative of C. plantagineum, exhibits desiccation tolerance, even though it is endemic to the montane rainforests of Tanzania and Kenya, where it never experiences seasonal dry periods. L. brevidens has been found exclusively in two fragments of the ancient Eastern Arc Mountains, which were protected from the devastating Pleistocene droughts by the stable Indian Ocean temperature. Analysis of the microhabitat reveals that L. brevidens is found in the same habitat as hygrophilous plant species, which further indicates that the plant never dries out completely. The objective of this investigation was to address whether C. plantagineum and L. brevidens have desiccation-related pathways in common, or whether L. brevidens has acquired novel pathways. A third, closely related, desiccation-sensitive species, Lindernia subracemosa, has been included for comparison. Mechanisms that confer cellular protection during extreme water loss are well conserved between C. plantagineum and L. brevidens, including the interconversion of 2-octulose to sucrose within the two desiccation-tolerant species. Furthermore, transcriptional control regions of desiccation-related genes belonging to the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein family are also highly conserved. We propose that L. brevidens is a neoendemic species that has retained desiccation tolerance through genome stability, despite tolerance being superfluous to environmental conditions.
SUMMARYThis paper presents a cable-driven dexterous manipulator with a large, open lumen. One specific application for the manipulator is the treatment of the degeneration of bone tissue (osteolysis) during a less-invasive hip revision surgery. Rigid tools used in traditional approaches limit the surgeons' ability to comprehensively treat the osteolysis due to the complex geometries of the lesion. The surgical scenario, testing, kinematic modeling, and image-based inverse kinematics are described. Testing shows 94% coverage of a lesion wall; the kinematic model describes manipulator notch positions within 0.15 mm, while the image-based inverse kinematics has 0.36 mm error. This manipulator is potentially useful in treating osteolytic lesions through (1) effective lesion exploration compared to conventional techniques, and (2) rapidly performing inverse kinematics from visual feedback.
The risk of osteoporotic hip fractures may be reduced by augmenting susceptible femora with acrylic polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. Grossly filling the proximal femur with PMMA has shown promise, but the augmented bones can suffer from thermal necrosis or cement leakage, among other side effects. We hypothesized that, using subject-specific planning and computer-assisted augmentation, we can minimize cement volume while increasing bone strength and reducing the risk of fracture. We mechanically tested eight pairs of osteoporotic femora, after augmenting one from each pair following patient-specific planning reported earlier, which optimized cement distribution and strength increase. An average of 9.5(±1.7)ml of cement was injected in the augmented set. Augmentation significantly (P<0.05) increased the yield load by 33%, maximum load by 30%, yield energy by 118%, and maximum energy by 94% relative to the non-augmented controls. Also predicted yield loads correlated well (R2=0.74) with the experiments and, for augmented specimens, cement profiles were predicted with an average surface error of <2mm, further validating our simulation techniques. Results of the current study suggest that subject-specific planning of femoroplasty reduces the risk of hip fracture while minimizing the amount of cement required.
The aim of this study was to provide a fast and accurate finite element (FE) modeling scheme for predicting bone stiffness and strength suitable for use within the framework of a computer-assisted osteoporotic femoral bone augmentation surgery system. The key parts of the system, i.e. preoperative planning and intraoperative assessment of the augmentation, demand the finite element model to be solved and analyzed rapidly. Available CT scans and mechanical testing results from nine pairs of osteoporotic femur bones, with one specimen from each pair augmented by polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement, were used to create FE models and compare the results with experiments. Correlation values of R2 = 0.72–0.95 were observed between the experiments and FEA results which, combined with the fast model convergence (~3 min for ~250,000 degrees of freedom), makes the presented modeling approach a promising candidate for the intended application of preoperative planning and intraoperative assessment of bone augmentation surgery.
Touching a real object with your fingertip provides simultaneous tactile and force feedback, yet most haptic interfaces for virtual environments can convey only one of these two essential modalities. To address this opportunity, we designed, prototyped, and evaluated the Touch Thimble, a new fingertip device that provides the user with the cutaneous sensation of making and breaking contact with virtual surfaces. Designed to attach to the endpoint of an impedance-type haptic interface like a SensAble Phantom, the Touch Thimble includes a slightly oversize cup that is suspended around the fingertip by passive springs. When the haptic interface applies contact forces from the virtual environment, the springs deflect to allow contact between the user's fingertip and the inner surface of the cup. We evaluated a prototype Touch Thimble against a standard thimble in a formal user study and found that it did not improve nor degrade subjects' ability to recognize smoothly curving surfaces. Although four of the eight subjects preferred it to the standard interface, overall the Touch Thimble made subjects slightly slower at recognizing the presented shapes. Detailed subject comments point out strengths and weaknesses of the current design and suggest avenues for future development of the device. This material is posted here with permission of the IEEE. Such permission of the IEEE does not in any way imply IEEE endorsement of any of the University of Pennsylvania's products or services. Internal or personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution must be obtained from the IEEE by writing to firstname.lastname@example.org. By choosing to view this document, you agree to all provisions of the copyright laws protecting it. ABSTRACTTouching a real object with your fingertip provides simultaneous tactile and force feedback, yet most haptic interfaces for virtual environments can convey only one of these two essential modalities. To address this opportunity, we designed, prototyped, and evaluated the Touch Thimble, a new fingertip device that provides the user with the cutaneous sensation of making and breaking contact with virtual surfaces. Designed to attach to the endpoint of an impedance-type haptic interface like a SensAble Phantom, the Touch Thimble includes a slightly oversize cup that is suspended around the fingertip by passive springs. When the haptic interface applies contact forces from the virtual environment, the springs deflect to allow contact between the user's fingertip and the inner surface of the cup. We evaluated a prototype Touch Thimble against a standard thimble in a formal user study and found that it did not improve nor degrade subjects' ability to recognize smoothly curving surfaces. Although four of the eight subjects preferred it to the standard interface, overall the Touch Thimble made subjects slightly slower at recognizing the presented shap...
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers