The primary function of a dental implant is to act as an abutment for a prosthetic device, similar to a natural tooth root and crown. Any success criteria, therefore, must include first and foremost support of a functional prosthesis. In addition, although clinical criteria for prosthetic success are beyond the scope of this article, patient satisfaction with the esthetic appearance of the implant restoration is necessary in clinical practice. The restoring dentist designs and fabricates a prosthesis similar to one supported by a tooth, and as such often evaluates and treats the dental implant similarly to a natural tooth. Yet, fundamental differences in the support system between these entities should be recognized. The purpose of this article is to use a few indices developed for natural teeth as an index that is specific for endosteal root-form implants. This article is also intended to update and upgrade what is purported to be implant success, implant survival, and implant failure. The Health Scale presented in this article was developed and accepted by the International Congress of Oral Implantologists Consensus Conference for Implant Success in Pisa, Italy, October 2007.
Maxillary sinus membrane perforation is the most common complication that occurs with sinus elevation augmentation surgery. A technique using a slow resorbing type I collagen membrane for repair of large and complete sinus membrane perforations is described. The biocompatibility and semirigid structural integrity of this membrane, along with external tack fixation, allows for optimal membrane stabilization and maintenance.
Purpose. This systematic review was aimed at assessing the feasibility by means of survival rate, histologic analysis, and causes of failure of allogeneic block grafts for augmenting the atrophic maxilla. Material and Methods. A literature search was conducted by one reviewer in several databases. Articles were included in this systematic review if they were human clinical trials in which outcomes of allogeneic bone block grafts were studied by means of survival rate. In addition other factors were extracted in order to assess their influence upon graft failure. Results. Fifteen articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and subsequently were analyzed in this systematic review. A total of 361 block grafts could be followed 4 to 9 months after the surgery, of which 9 (2.4%) failed within 1 month to 2 months after the surgery. Additionally, a weighed mean 4.79 mm (95% CI: 4.51–5.08) horizontal bone gain was computed from 119 grafted sites in 5 studies. Regarding implant cumulative survival rate, the weighed mean was 96.9% (95% CI: 92.8–98.7%), computed from 228 implants over a mean follow-up period of 23.9 months. Histologic analysis showed that allogeneic block grafts behave differently in the early stages of healing when compared to autogenous block grafts. Conclusion. Atrophied maxillary reconstruction with allogeneic bone block grafts represents a reliable option as shown by low block graft failure rate, minimal resorption, and high implant survival rate.
Objectives Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has been utilized in regenerative dentistry as a supra-physiological concentrate of autologous growth factors capable of stimulating tissue regeneration. Due to the variability in the macroscopic morphology/size of PRF membranes observed between patients, we were interested in studying the effects of patient age, gender, and time between blood draw and the start of centrifugation on the size outcomes of PRF membranes. Despite PRF therapy being increasingly more popular in private practice, to date, no study has investigated the effects of the delay between blood draw and the start of centrifugation in a clinical setting. Materials and methods A total of 60 patients enrolled in this study were divided into 6 groups of 10 patients each, including male and female patients categorized into age groups 21-40, 41-60, and 61-80 years. From each patient, a total of five PRF membranes were fabricated from 10-mL tubes following centrifugation starting after 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 s. In total, 300 PRF membranes were produced in this study to investigate the effects of patient age, gender, and time on the size outcomes of PRF membranes. Results A longer delay by the clinician before starting centrifugation following blood draw led to a smaller final size of PRF membranes. At 90 s following blood draw, a significant (13%) reduction in PRF membrane size was observed. After 120 s, a significant (23%) reduction was observed. Additionally, female patients had on average 17% larger membranes compared to men (p < 0.05, 300 samples). Lastly, the size outcomes of the PRF membranes was largest in patients aged 61-80, followed by those aged 41-60 and 21-40. However, no statistically significant differences in PRF membrane sizes were reported between age groups. Conclusions The time at which a centrifugation procedure begins following blood draw is critical to optimize the size outcomes of PRF membranes. In general, approximately 15 s is required per tube to harvest 9-10 cc of blood. Therefore, a 60-to 90-s interval between blood draw and the start of centrifugation should be a parameter that is respected by clinicians to avoid significant changes in the macroscopic morphology/size of fabricated PRF membranes. Furthermore, females and older patients produced larger membranes, likely due to lower red blood cell counts derived from their peripheral blood. Clinical relevance The findings from the present study demonstrate that on average, a clinician has approximately 60-90 s between blood draw and the start of the centrifugation cycle to produce standard-sized PRF membranes. Shortly thereafter, a significant reduction in size is observed. Additionally, females and older patients were found to produce larger PRF membranes. Centrifugation protocols may therefore be adapted accordingly.
This assignment applies to all translations of the Work as well as to preliminary display/posting of the abstract of the accepted article in electronic form before publication. If any changes in authorship (order, deletions, or additions) occur after the manuscript is submitted, agreement by all authors for such changes must be on file with the Publisher. An author's name may be removed only at his/her written request. (Note: Material prepared by employees of the US government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.