In this work, monodisperse polydopamine (PDA) spheres with tunable diameters have been synthesized through a facile and low cost method using a deionized water and alcohol mixed solvent. The PDA spheres possess surface functional groups (-OH, -NH(2)), exhibiting an extraordinary versatile active nature. It is demonstrated that the PDA spheres could serve as an active template for the convenient synthesis of various nanostructures, e.g., MnO(2) hollow spheres or PDA/Fe(3)O(4) and PDA/Ag core/shell nanostructures. No surface modification or special treatment is required for the synthesis of these nanostructures, which makes the fabrication process simple and very convenient. The novel application of PDA/Fe(3)O(4) spheres as fillers in nanocomposites for high-performance capacitors is demonstrated, indicating a promising practicality. The PDA spheres provide a new general platform not only for the facile assembly of nanostructures but also a green synthetic template for practical applications.
Conducting nanowires are of particular interest in energy-related research on devices such as supercapacitors, batteries, water splitting electrodes and solar cells. Their direct electrode/current collector contact and highly conductive 1D structure enable conducting nanowires to provide ultrafast charge transportation. In this paper, we report the facile synthesis of nickel cobalt layered double hydroxides (LDHs) on conducting Zn(2)SnO(4) (ZTO) and the application of this material to a supercapacitor. This study also presents the first report of an enhancement of the active faradic reaction sites (electroactive sites) resulting from the heterostructure. This novel material demonstrates outstanding electrochemical performance with a high specific capacitance of 1805 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1), and an excellent rate performance of 1275 F g(-1) can be achieved at 100 A g(-1). Furthermore, an asymmetric supercapacitor was successfully fabricated using active carbon as a negative electrode. This asymmetric device exhibits a high energy density of 23.7 W h kg(-1) at a power density of 284.2 W kg(-1). Meanwhile, a high power density of 5817.2 W kg(-1) can be achieved at an energy density of 9.7 W h kg(-1). More importantly, this device exhibits long-term cycling stability, with 92.7% capacity retention after 5000 cycles.
Textiles that are capable of harvesting biomechanical energy via triboelectric effects are of interest for self-powered wearable electronics. Fabrication of conformable and durable textiles with high triboelectric outputs remains challenging. Here we propose a washable skin-touch-actuated textile-based triboelectric nanogenerator for harvesting mechanical energy from both voluntary and involuntary body motions. Black phosphorus encapsulated with hydrophobic cellulose oleoyl ester nanoparticles serves as a synergetic electron-trapping coating, rendering a textile nanogenerator with long-term reliability and high triboelectricity regardless of various extreme deformations, severe washing, and extended environmental exposure. Considerably high output (~250–880 V, ~0.48–1.1 µA cm−2) can be attained upon touching by hand with a small force (~5 N) and low frequency (~4 Hz), which can power light-emitting diodes and a digital watch. This conformable all-textile-nanogenerator is incorporable onto cloths/skin to capture the low output of 60 V from subtle involuntary friction with skin, well suited for users’ motion or daily operations.
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