Four vertical and three horizontal measurements were taken to assess the validity of neoclassical facial canons in 500 (272 female, 228 male) healthy, young adults between the ages of 18 and 25 years from Turkey and to compare them with a different population. The measurements were made by a millimetric compass. The special head height was longer than the special face height in the majority of our group (women/men: 97.8%/91.7%). The three-section facial profile canon was equal in only one male subject (women/men: 0/0.4%). Faces with four equal profile sections were not seen in either of the sexes. The nose length was longer than the ear length in the minority of our population (women/men: 1.5%/1.3%). The intercanthal distance was shorter than the nose width and left eye fissure length in the majority of our subjects (women/men: 50.4%/78.9% and 50.0%/52.2% respectively). The mouth width was greater than 1.5 times the nose width in the majority of this study (women/men: 66.9% vs 49.1%).
The present study was undertaken to determine the normal values of the intercanthal distance, biocular distance, interpupillary distance and palpebral fissure length and height for the Turkish population. These measurements were taken from 500 (272 females, 228 males) healthy young adults aged 18-25 years. The measurements were made with a millimetric compass. The mean values of intercanthal distance, biocular distance, interpupillary distance, right palpebral fissure length and palpebral fissure height were 30.7+/-3.0 mm, 95.9+/-6.0 mm, 63.9+/-3.6 mm, 32.6+/-2.4 mm and 10.3+/-1.6 mm respectively in males. In females the equivalent values were 30.0+/-2.6 mm, 92.0+/-5.4 mm, 60.8+/-3.2 mm, 31.0+/-2.4 mm and 10.4+/-1.5 mm respectively.
Background and aim: This study was aimed to determine the total body surface area and percents of both palmar surface of the whole hand (hand surface area) and palm without fingers (palm surface area) in our population.
IntroductionThe aim of this study was to present the reference anthropometric data associated with obesity for cardiovascular risk and metabolic diseases for healthy young adults in a Turkish population.Material and methodsThe study group consisted of 1163 second-year medical students (650 women, 513 men) aged 20-25 years from Çukurova University in Adana and the measurements were made using a flexible standard measuring tape. The data were collected during the period 2007-2011.ResultsFrom 1163 medical students, the mean values of body mass index, circumferences of waist, hip, neck, mid-arm, thigh and calf were 20.89 ±1.6 kg/m2, 73.15 ±5.1 cm, 95.35 ±4.8 cm, 30.32 ±1.37 cm, 24.12 ±1.75 cm, 47.23 ±3.26 cm and 34.36 ±2.19 cm respectively in women, while the same measurements were 21.98 ±1.67 kg/m2, 77.73 ±5.81 cm, 95.64 ±4.81 cm, 35.61 ±1.43 cm, 25.60 ±1.84 cm, 44.10 ±3.26 cm and 34.92 ±2.08 cm respectively in men. Moreover, waist to hip ratio, waist to height ratio and neck to height ratio were respectively 0.76, 0.44 and 0.18 in women and 0.81, 0.43 and 0.19 in men.ConclusionsThe precise knowledge of anthropometric data could be used as reference values for evaluating the body composition and fat distribution of Turkish young people.
This study was conducted to determine the location and type of pterion in Turkish males. The importance of the pterion is its relation to the middle meningeal artery, Broca's motor speech area on the left side, and surgical interventions relating to pathologies of the sphenoid ridge and optic canal. Specific measurements were taken on both sides of 26 Turkish human male skulls, none of which showed any obvious pathology or trauma. The sphenoparietal type of pterion was the most common (96% right side, 79% left side), followed by the frontotemporal (4% right side, 17% left side), and finally the epipteric type (4% left side only). The distances on the right and left sides respectively from the center of the pterion to the frontozygomatic suture were 3.30+/-0.40 cm and 3.44+/-0.39 cm, to the zygomatic arch 4.05+/-0.39 cm and 3.85+/-0.25 cm, to the optic canal 4.39+/-0.40 cm and 4.36+/-0.40 cm, and to the sphenoid ridge 1.40+/-0.33 cm and 1.48+/-0.32 cm. The thickness of the skull at the center of the pterion was 0.41+/-0.14 cm and 0.39+/-0.12 cm on the right and left sides respectively. These findings should be of use in surgical approaches and interventions via the pterion.
SUMMARY:Carrying angle, or cubital angle defined as the acute angle formed by the median axis of the arm when forearm is in fully extended and supinated position. This angle changes with skelatal growth and maturity. This study was aimed to investigate the correlation of carrying angle with bi-acromial diameter and bi-acromial diameter/bi-trochanteric diameter in our healthy young adult population. This was a cross-sectional study that included 400 (204 male,196 female) young adult students selected from Çukurova University aged between 18-25 years (mean±standard deviation of females: 20.11±2.05 years; mean±standard deviation of males: 20.45±1.82 years) which originated from different cities in Turkey. After recording demographic data, carrying angle, forearm length, arm length, bi-trochanteric diameter and bi-acromial diameter were measured by using nonelastic tape measure, pelvimeter and manuel goniometer. In addition, body mass index and bi-acromial diameter/bi-trochanteric diameter were calculated for each participants. The mean values of body height and weight were in following respectively for both genders: 178.53±6.40 cm (male), 163.88±5.73 cm (female); 74.89±10.81 kg (male), 57.56±8.61 kg (female). Whereas on dominant arm this angle was as in males 9.77°±2.82° and 13.94°±3.97°i n females. The mean value of the carrying angle on nondominant arm in males was 9.85°±2.95° and 14.03°±4.08° in females. The mean carrying angle was 9.81°±2.82° in males and 13.99°±3.97° in females. There are linear relationship between the carrying angle and height (r=-0.474, p<0.001, bi-acromial diameter (r=-0.490, p<0.001), bi-acromial diameter/bi-trochanteric diameter (r=-0.449, p<0.001), forearm length (r=-0.366, p<0.001) and arm length (r=-0.273, p<0.001). We believe that the reference values of carrying angle will help the clinician in the management of elbow displacements, fractures, prosthetic design and diagnosis of epicondylar diseases.
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