XGP should be included in the differential diagnosis of all children presenting with perirenal or psoas abscess, renal mass and/or non-functioning kidney associated with/or without urolithiasis. Clinical awareness and a high index of suspicion is required to achieve the correct preoperative diagnosis and appropriate management. CT seems to be the most valuable imaging method for the diagnosis. We strongly recommend percutaneous drainage of the abscess and adjunctive antibiotic therapy prior to nephrectomy to avoid complications. Complete nephrectomy is the proper treatment for the diffuse form whereas frozen section biopsies followed by partial nephrectomy are mandatory for the proper treatment of focal disease.
The study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD) in childhood benign esophageal strictures. The medical records of 38 patients who underwent EBD from 1999 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic features, diagnoses, features of strictures, frequency and number of EBD, complications, outcome, and recurrence data were recorded. Median age was 1.5 years (0-14), and female/male ratio was 17/21 (n = 38). Primary diagnoses were corrosive esophageal stricture (n = 19) and esophageal atresia (n = 19). The length of strictures were less than 5 cm in 78.9% (n = 30). No complication was seen in 86.8% (n = 33). Perforation was seen in 10.5% (n = 4), and recurrent fistula was seen in 2.7% (n = 1). Total treatment lasted for 1 year (1-11). Dysphagia was relieved in 60.5% (n = 23). Recurrence was seen in 31.6% (n = 12). Treatment effectiveness was higher, and complication rates were lower in strictures shorter than 5 cm compared with longer ones (70% vs. 25%, P < 0.05, and 3.4% vs. 37.5%, P < 0.05). Although there was no statistical difference, treatment effectiveness rates were lower and complication and recurrence rates were higher in corrosive strictures compared with anastomotic ones (P > 0.05). EBD is a safe and efficient treatment choice in esophageal strictures, especially in strictures shorter than 5 cm and anastomotic strictures.
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