Disordered eating is a serious and under‐recognized problem in people with diabetes. This narrative review summarizes the research contributions made by psychological science over the past 25 years to the study of disordered eating in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, and identifies gaps and future directions relevant to both healthcare professionals and researchers. Key focus areas of psychological research investigating disordered eating in people with diabetes have been: (1) defining and classifying types of disordered eating; (2) identifying demographic, diabetes‐specific and psychosocial correlates of disordered eating, and developing theoretical models of disordered eating in people with type 1 diabetes; (3) identifying the physical and psychosocial consequences of disordered eating; and (4) developing screening measures to identify disordered eating in people with type 1 diabetes. Psychological science has made significant contributions over the past 25 years to our understanding of the nature of this problem and the multiple factors which may interrelate with disordered eating in people with diabetes. Key areas for further attention include: (1) a better definition of disordered eating subtypes in people with type 1 diabetes; (2) characterizing disordered eating in people with type 2 diabetes; and (3) developing multidisciplinary, evidence‐based prevention and treatment interventions for comorbid disordered eating and diabetes.
T1DM and its associated risk factors are related to subtle impairments across the inhibition, working memory, and set-shifting domains of EF. Lower EF may be a key factor contributing to behavioral and clinical problems experienced by individuals with T1DM.
To examine whether frequency, perceived severity and fear of hypoglycaemia are independently associated with diabetes-specific quality of life in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Methods: Cross-sectional self-reported data on demographics, frequency and perceived severity of both self-treated and severe hypoglycaemia, fear of hypoglycaemia (Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey-Child version) and diabetes-specific quality of life (Pediatric Quality of Life Diabetes Module; PedsQL-DM) were obtained from the project 'Whose diabetes is it anyway?'. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed for the total scale and recommended summary scores of the PedsQL-DM as dependent variables; independent variables were entered in the following steps: (1) age, gender and HbA 1c , (2) frequency of hypoglycaemia, (3) perceived severity of hypoglycaemia and (4) fear of hypoglycaemia. Results: Adolescents (12-18 years; n = 96) completed questionnaires. In the first three steps, female gender (p < 0.05), higher HbA 1c (p < 0.05), higher frequency of severe hypoglycaemia (p < 0.05) and higher perceived severity of severe (p < 0.05) and self-treated hypoglycaemia (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with lower diabetes-specific quality of life (β ranging from 0.20 to 0.35). However, in the final model only fear of hypoglycaemia was significantly associated with QoL (p < 0.001).Adolescents with greater fear reported lower diabetes-specific quality of life, with 52% explained variance. This pattern was observed across subdomains of diabetesspecific quality of life. Conclusions: Fear of hypoglycaemia was the only factor independently associated with diabetes-specific quality of life, whereas frequency and perceived severity of hypoglycaemia were not. These findings highlight the importance of awareness and assessment of fear of hypoglycaemia in clinical practice.
Aims/hypothesis It is generally accepted that hypoglycaemia can negatively impact the quality of life (QoL) of people living with diabetes. However, the suitability of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) used to assess this impact is unclear. The aim of this systematic review was to identify PROMs used to assess the impact of hypoglycaemia on QoL and examine their quality and psychometric properties. Methods Systematic searches (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and The Cochrane Library databases) were undertaken to identify published articles reporting on the development or validation of hypoglycaemia-specific PROMs used to assess the impact of hypoglycaemia on QoL (or domains of QoL) in adults with diabetes. A protocol was developed and registered with PROSPERO (registration no. CRD42019125153). Studies were assessed for inclusion at title/abstract stage by one reviewer. Full-text articles were scrutinised where considered relevant or potentially relevant or where doubt existed. Twenty per cent of articles were assessed by a second reviewer. PROMS were evaluated, according to COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) guidelines, and data were extracted independently by two reviewers against COSMIN criteria. Assessment of each PROM’s content validity included reviewer ratings (N = 16) of relevance, comprehensiveness and comprehensibility: by researchers (n = 6); clinicians (n = 6); and adults with diabetes (n = 4). Results Of the 214 PROMs used to assess the impact of hypoglycaemia on QoL (or domains of QoL), seven hypoglycaemia-specific PROMS were identified and subjected to full evaluation: the Fear of Hypoglycemia 15-item scale; the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey; the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey version II; the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey-II short-form; the Hypoglycemic Attitudes and Behavior Scale; the Hypoglycemic Confidence Scale; and the QoLHYPO questionnaire. Content validity was rated as ‘inconsistent’, with most as ‘(very) low’ quality, while structural validity was deemed ‘unsatisfactory’. Other measurement properties (e.g. reliability) varied, and evidence gaps were apparent across all PROMs. None of the identified studies addressed cross-cultural validity or measurement error. Criterion validity and responsiveness were not assessed due to the lack of a ‘gold standard’ measure of the impact of hypoglycaemia on QoL against which to compare the PROMS. Conclusions/interpretation None of the hypoglycaemia-specific PROMs identified had sufficient evidence to demonstrate satisfactory validity, reliability and responsiveness. All were limited in terms of content and structural validity, which restricts their utility for assessing the impact of hypoglycaemia on QoL in the clinic or research setting. Further research is needed to address the content validity of existing PROMs, or the development of new PROM(s), for the purpose of assessing the impact of hypoglycaemia on QoL. Prospero registration CRD42019125153 Graphical abstract
IntroductionHypoglycaemia is a frequent adverse event and major barrier for achieving optimal blood glucose levels in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes using insulin. The Hypo-RESOLVE (Hypoglycaemia—Redefining SOLutions for better liVEs) consortium aims to further our understanding of the day-to-day impact of hypoglycaemia. The Hypo-METRICS (Hypoglycaemia—MEasurement, ThResholds and ImpaCtS) application (app) is a novel app for smartphones. This app is developed as part of the Hypo-RESOLVE project, using ecological momentary assessment methods that will minimise recall bias and allow for robust investigation of the day-to-day impact of hypoglycaemia. In this paper, the development and planned psychometric analyses of the app are described.Methods and analysisThe three phases of development of the Hypo-METRICS app are: (1) establish a working group—comprising diabetologists, psychologists and people with diabetes—to define the problem and identify relevant areas of daily functioning; (2) develop app items, with user-testing, and implement into the app platform; and (3) plan a large-scale, multicountry study including interviews with users and psychometric validation. The app includes 7 modules (29 unique items) assessing: self-report of hypoglycaemic episodes (during the day and night, respectively), sleep quality, well-being/cognitive function, social interactions, fear of hypoglycaemia/hyperglycaemia and work/productivity. The app is designed for use within three fixed time intervals per day (morning, afternoon and evening). The first version was released mid-2020 for use (in conjunction with continuous glucose monitoring and activity tracking) in the Hypo-METRICS study; an international observational longitudinal study. As part of this study, semistructured user-experience interviews and psychometric analyses will be conducted.Ethics and disseminationUse of the novel Hypo-METRICS app in a multicountry clinical study has received ethical approval in each of the five countries involved (Oxford B Research Ethics Committee, CMO Region Arnhem-Nijmegen, Ethikkommission der Medizinischen Universität Graz, Videnskabsetisk Komite for Region Hovedstaden and the Comite Die Protection Des Personnes SUD Mediterranne IV). The results from the study will be published in peer review journals and presented at national and international conferences.Trial registration numberNCT04304963.
IntroductionAchieving glycemic targets and optimizing quality of life (QoL) are important goals of type 1 diabetes care. Hypoglycemia is a common barrier to achieving targets and can be associated with significant distress. However, the impact of hypoglycemia on QoL is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to explore how adults with type 1 diabetes are impacted by hypoglycemia in areas of life that are important to their overall QoL.Research design and methodsParticipants responded to a web-based qualitative survey involving a novel ‘Wheel of Life’ activity. Responses were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis.ResultsThe final sample included 219 adults with type 1 diabetes from Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK. They had a mean±SD age of 39±13 years and diabetes duration of 20±14 years. Participants identified eight areas of life important to their overall QoL, including relationships and social life, work and studies, leisure and physical activity, everyday life, sleep, sex life, physical health, and mental health. Participants reported emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and social impacts of hypoglycemia within domains. Across domains, participants described interruptions, limited participation in activities, exhaustion, fear of hypoglycemia, compensatory strategies to prevent hypoglycemia, and reduced spontaneity.ConclusionsThe findings emphasize the profound impact of hypoglycemia on QoL and diabetes self-care behaviors. Diabetes services should be aware of and address the burden of hypoglycemia to provide person-centered care. Clinicians could ask individuals how hypoglycemia affects important areas of their lives to better understand the personal impact and develop tailored management plans.
Aim To examine the challenges healthcare teams face when treating people with type 1 diabetes and disordered eating and the strategies these teams have developed to facilitate effective treatment. Methods Four semi-structured focus groups were conducted including two tertiary diabetes specialist teams and three tertiary eating disorders specialist teams between July and December 2018. Thematic analysis of the transcripts followed a six-phase process. Results Twenty-nine experienced healthcare professionals (16 diabetes and 13 eating disorder specialists, 16AE12 years' professional experience) were interviewed. The challenges identified in treating people with type 1 diabetes and disordered eating included subthemes the 'challenges specific to the healthcare professional' (feeling not competent enough and perceived emotional burden), 'challenges pertaining to patient factors' (e.g. difficulties with engaging in therapy) and 'challenges created by the healthcare system' (time pressure and staff shortage). Healthcare professionals expressed the need for a consensus on diagnosis and the definition of disordered eating in type 1 diabetes, as well as the need for training and educational resources specific to type 1 diabetes and disordered eating. Healthcare professionals gave practical examples of strategies of communication for better patient engagement and felt that multidisciplinary working in joint clinics with the other specialty were facilitators for recovery from disordered eating. Conclusions Healthcare professionals require multidisciplinary team support when treating people with type 1 diabetes and to improve their own competencies. The development of effective screening and assessment tools, educational resources and training for healthcare professionals, and developing multidisciplinary treatment pathways will be key to improving outcomes for their service users with type 1 diabetes and disordered eating.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers