The composite of all-cause mortality and nonfatal cardiovascular event rate was not different in the OL-HDF and in the high-flux HD groups. In a post hoc analysis, OL-HDF treatment with substitution volumes over 17.4 L was associated with better cardiovascular and overall survival.
Acute right ventricular (RV) failure is a complex clinical syndrome that results from many causes. Research efforts have disproportionately focused on the failing left ventricle, but recently the need has been recognized to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of RV anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology, and of management approaches. Right ventricular mechanics and function are altered in the setting of either pressure overload or volume overload. Failure may also result from a primary reduction of myocardial contractility owing to ischaemia, cardiomyopathy, or arrhythmia. Dysfunction leads to impaired RV filling and increased right atrial pressures. As dysfunction progresses
227to overt RV failure, the RV chamber becomes more spherical and tricuspid regurgitation is aggravated, a cascade leading to increasing venous congestion. Ventricular interdependence results in impaired left ventricular filling, a decrease in left ventricular stroke volume, and ultimately low cardiac output and cardiogenic shock. Identification and treatment of the underlying cause of RV failure, such as acute pulmonary embolism, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute decompensation of chronic pulmonary hypertension, RV infarction, or arrhythmia, is the primary management strategy. Judicious fluid management, use of inotropes and vasopressors, assist devices, and a strategy focusing on RV protection for mechanical ventilation if required all play a role in the clinical care of these patients. Future research should aim to address the remaining areas of uncertainty which result from the complexity of RV haemodynamics and lack of conclusive evidence regarding RV-specific treatment approaches.
BACKGROUNDThe selective cardiac myosin activator omecamtiv mecarbil has been shown to improve cardiac function in patients with heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction. Its effect on cardiovascular outcomes is unknown.
METHODSWe randomly assigned 8256 patients (inpatients and outpatients) with symptomatic chronic heart failure and an ejection fraction of 35% or less to receive omecamtiv mecarbil (using pharmacokinetic-guided doses of 25 mg, 37.5 mg, or 50 mg twice daily) or placebo, in addition to standard heart-failure therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of a first heart-failure event (hospitalization or urgent visit for heart failure) or death from cardiovascular causes.
RESULTSDuring a median of 21.8 months, a primary-outcome event occurred in 1523 of 4120 patients (37.0%) in the omecamtiv mecarbil group and in 1607 of 4112 patients (39.1%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86 to 0.99; P = 0.03). A total of 808 patients (19.6%) and 798 patients (19.4%), respectively, died from cardiovascular causes (hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.11). There was no significant difference between groups in the change from baseline on the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire total symptom score. At week 24, the change from baseline for the median N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level was 10% lower in the omecamtiv mecarbil group than in the placebo group; the median cardiac troponin I level was 4 ng per liter higher. The frequency of cardiac ischemic and ventricular arrhythmia events was similar in the two groups.
CONCLUSIONSAmong patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection, those who received omecamtiv mecarbil had a lower incidence of a composite of a heart-failure event or death from cardiovascular causes than those who received placebo.
Organ injury and impairment are commonly observed in patients with acute heart
failure (AHF), and congestion is an essential pathophysiological mechanism of impaired
organ function. Congestion is the predominant clinical profile in most patients with AHF;
a smaller proportion presents with peripheral hypoperfusion or cardiogenic shock.
Hypoperfusion further deteriorates organ function. The injury and dysfunction of target
organs (i.e. heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, intestine, brain) in the setting of AHF are
associated with increased risk for mortality. Improvement in organ function after
decongestive therapies has been associated with a lower risk for post-discharge mortality.
Thus, the prevention and correction of organ dysfunction represent a therapeutic target of
interest in AHF and should be evaluated in clinical trials. Treatment strategies that
specifically prevent, reduce or reverse organ dysfunction remain to be identified and
evaluated to determine if such interventions impact mortality, morbidity and
patient-centred outcomes. This paper reflects current understanding among experts of the
presentation and management of organ impairment in AHF and suggests priorities for future
research to advance the field.
Despite developments in targeted gene sequencing and whole-genome analysis techniques, the robust detection of all genetic variation, including structural variants, in and around genes of interest and in an allele-specific manner remains a challenge. Here we present targeted locus amplification (TLA), a strategy to selectively amplify and sequence entire genes on the basis of the crosslinking of physically proximal sequences. We show that, unlike other targeted re-sequencing methods, TLA works without detailed prior locus information, as one or a few primer pairs are sufficient for sequencing tens to hundreds of kilobases of surrounding DNA. This enables robust detection of single nucleotide variants, structural variants and gene fusions in clinically relevant genes, including BRCA1 and BRCA2, and enables haplotyping. We show that TLA can also be used to uncover insertion sites and sequences of integrated transgenes and viruses. TLA therefore promises to be a useful method in genetic research and diagnostics when comprehensive or allele-specific genetic information is needed.
Purpose: We performed a survey on acute heart failure (AHF) in nine countries in four continents. We aimed to describe characteristics and management of AHF among various countries, to compare patients with de novo AHF versus patients with a pre-existing episode of AHF, and to describe subpopulations hospitalized in intensive care unit (ICU) versus cardiac care unit (CCU) versus ward. Methods and results: Data from 4,953 patients with AHF were collected via questionnaire from 666 hospitals. Clinical presentation included decompensated congestive HF (38.6%), pulmonary oedema (36.7%) and cardiogenic shock (11.7%). Patients with de novo episode of AHF (36.2%) were younger, had less comorbidities and lower blood pressure despite greater left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and were more often admitted to ICU.Overall, intravenous (IV) diuretics were given in 89.7%, vasodilators in 41.1%, and inotropic agents (dobutamine, dopamine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and levosimendan) in 39% of cases. Overall hospital death rate was 12%, the majority due to cardiogenic shock (43%). More patients with de novo AHF (14.2%) than patients with a pre-existing episode of AHF (10.8%) (p = 0.0007) died. There was graded mortality in ICU, CCU and ward patients with mortality in ICU patients being the highest (17.8%) (p \ 0.0001). Conclusions: Our data demonstrated the existence of different subgroups based on de novo or pre-existing episode(s) of AHF and the site of hospitalization. Recognition of these subgroups might improve management and outcome by defining specific therapeutic requirements.
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