Both stromal and subbasal nerves appear abnormal in the corneas of patients with diabetes. Patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy show more pronounced nerve alterations than patients who do not have diabetic retinopathy.
Preparatory studies provide accurate local estimates of HIV incidence, recruitment and retention rates, and behavioral characteristics of targeted populations for large-scale clinical trials. Determining these factors allows for better preparation for design, sample size, and appropriate population for future selection of trial sites. Because of the lower than expected HIV incidence observed at the Moshi site, only the South African and Zambian sites were selected for the phase 2/IIb trial.
Purpose To identify the morphologic appearance of keratic precipitates (KPs) with in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) in uveitic syndromes. Methods A total of 75 eyes of 72 patients with a mean age of 38.6±15.1 years who had active intraocular inflammation and whose corneas had KP on slit-lamp examination were included in this study. IVCM (Confoscan 3.0, Vigonza, Italy) was used to image the part of the corneal endothelium in which KP were most densely deposited. KP were classified into five groups: type I (small, round), type II (stippled), type III (dendritiform), type IV (large, smooth-rounded), and type V (globular). When more than one type of KP was observed with IVCM, a distinction between the predominant and the less frequent KP was made as 'primary' and 'secondary' KP. Results In 50 (66.7%) eyes more than one type of KP was imaged. The size of the KP ranged between 5 and 150 lm. The most frequently observed primary KP type in Behçet's disease was type I (100%), in ankylosing spondylitis type II (57.1%), in Fuchs' uveitis syndrome type III (85.7%), in granulomatous uveitis type V (42.9%), in infectious uveitis type III (66.7%), and in juvenile idiopathic arthritis associated uveitis type I (66.7%). The KP types showed a statistically significant difference between different uveitic syndromes (Fisher's exact test, Po0.001). Conclusions Certain KP types appear to be characteristic of various uveitic syndromes. IVCM may have a potential role in the diagnostic work-up of uveitic patients.
Mild to moderate MGD is frequently encountered in patients with medically treated glaucoma. However, the presence of MGD does not appear to have an additional detrimental effect on the ocular surface to that already induced by chronic topical medication use.
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