This rapid review aimed to examine the usefulness of the Edmonton Obesity Staging System (EOSS) for stratifying the presence and severity of weight-related health problems in clinical and community settings. We searched PubMed, CINAHL and ProQuest for records from 2009 to May 2020. We considered observational studies in participants with overweight or obesity that investigated the risk of any clinical outcome associated with increasing EOSS. We reviewed and appraised 20 observational studies (cohort = 4, case series = 7, cross-sectional = 9) published between 2011 and 2020. Of 12 studies in clinical populations, the EOSS was most consistently associated with an increased risk of postoperative complications following bariatric surgery, especially for EOSS 3-4, and inversely associated with weight loss, treatment time and resolution of hypertension following bariatric surgery and clinical weight management. Of eight studies in community populations, the EOSS most consistently predicted mortality outcomes, especially for EOSS 3, and was associated with polypharmacy, service use and poorer work outcomes. Studies reported diverse EOSS definitions and outcomes, which slightly weakens the overall evidence base. The EOSS should be routinely used for predicting risks and benefits of surgical and nonsurgical weight management, but it should be applied with caution for population health planning.
A previously well and immunocompetent 64-year-old woman presented with fever of unknown origin and acute hepatitis. Besides headache and nausea, she had no other symptoms. Her clinical examination was unremarkable with no clear focus of infection. She was thoroughly investigated and her biochemical profile suggested a viral or autoimmune aetiology. Multiple imaging modalities gave no further insight. Her serology and subsequent nucleic acid amplification indicated reactivation of latent cytomegalovirus (CMV). Her symptoms resolved with supportive care and no anti-viral therapy was needed. This case report highlights CMV reactivation leading to acute hepatitis in a well, immunocompetent patient.
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