A printed planar antenna with simple and intelligent geometrical structure has been proposed for Ku/K band satellite communication systems. The radiating patch of the antenna is formed by cutting rectangular slots and extending the radiating element to some extent. The final design of the antenna with optimized parameters is fabricated on ceramic-polytetrafluoroethylene substrate materials of dielectric constant ε r = 10.2. The antenna is excited through a microstrip feed line and has reduced ground plane that covers only the non-radiating portion of the antenna. The reduced complexity of the antenna is easy to fabricate and has overall dimension of 40 × 35 × 1.905 mm 3 . The results from experimental analysis show that the proposed antenna can guarantee a wide bandwidth of 12.0 to 16.4 GHz at lower band, and the upper band covers the frequency in the range of 17.53 to 19.5 GHz. The antenna has achieved appreciable gain in the range of 3.14 to 4.68 dBi for lower band and 2.03 to 3.65 dBi for upper band. The proposed antenna has offered almost symmetrical and directional radiation pattern that is essentially suitable for serving Ku/K band satellite applications.
Problem statement: The social demands for the Quality Of Life (QOL) are increasing with the exponentially expanding silver generation. To improve the QOL of the disabled and elderly people, robotic researchers and biomedical engineers have been trying to combine their techniques into the rehabilitation systems. Various biomedical signals (biosignals) acquired from a specialized tissue, organ, or cell system like the nervous system are the driving force for the entire system. Examples of biosignals include Electro-Encephalogram (EEG), Electrooculogram (EOG), Electroneurogram (ENG) and (EMG). Approach: Among the biosignals, the research on EMG signal processing and controlling is currently expanding in various directions. EMG signal based research is ongoing for the development of simple, robust, user friendly, efficient interfacing devices/systems for the disabled. The advancement can be observed in the area of robotic devices, prosthesis limb, exoskeleton, wearable computer, I/O for virtual reality games and physical exercise equipments. An EMG signal based graphical controller or interfacing system enables the physically disabled to use word processing programs, other personal computer software and internet. Results: Depending on the application, the acquired and processed signals need to be classified for interpreting into mechanical force or machine/computer command. Conclusion: This study focused on the advances and improvements on different methodologies used for EMG signal classification with their efficiency, flexibility and applications. This review will be beneficial to the EMG signal researchers as a reference and comparison study of EMG classifier. For the development of robust, flexible and efficient applications, this study opened a pathway to the researchers in performing future comparative studies between different EMG classification methods
A straight forward design of rectangular slotted microstrip planar antenna fed by 50 ohm microstrip line is proposed for Ku/K band satellite applications. The radiating patch of the antenna occupies an area of 17 × 17 mm 2 and fabricated on 1.0 mm-thick ceramic filled bioplastic composite material substrate whose dielectric constant (ε r ) is 10.0. The dual resonant square-shaped antenna has been formed by inserting four arc shape slots at the corners with the combination of circle and square and wide square shape slot at the center. The results from the measured data show that the antenna has a lower resonant mode impedance bandwidth for S11 < À10 dB is of 18.4% (11.67-14.05 GHz) and upper resonant mode bandwidth is of 8. 2% (18.19-19.75 GHz) centered at 12.94 GHz and 19.04 GHz, respectively. The antenna prototype has achieved maximum gains of 3.1 dBi and 4.13 dBi with average radiation efficiencies of 75.3% and 86.4% for the lower band and the upper band, respectively. The numerical data analyses of both the measured and simulated results show relatively good agreement. Moreover, the consistent and symmetrical radiation patters of the proposed antenna make it suitable candidate for the Ku/K band satellite applications.
EMG signal based research is ongoing for the development of simple, robust, user friendly, efficient interfacing devices/systems for the disabled. The advancement can be observed in the area of robotic devices, prosthesis limb, exoskeleton, wearable computer, I/O for virtual reality games and physical exercise equipments. Additionally, electromyography (EMG) signals can also be applied in the field of human computer interaction (HCI) system. This paper represents the detection of different predefined hand motions (left, right, up and down) using artificial neural network (ANN). A backpropagation (BP) network with Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm has been utilized for the classification of EMG signals. The conventional and most effective time and timefrequency based feature set is utilized for the training of neural network. The obtained results show that the designed network is able to recognize hand movements with satisfied classification efficiency in average of 88.4%. Furthermore, when the trained network tested on unknown data set, it successfully identify the movement types.
The design procedure and physical module of a compact wideband patch antenna for Ku band application are presented in this paper. Finite element method based on 3D electromagnetic field solver has been utilized for the designing and analyzing process of proposed microstrip line fed modified -shaped electrically small patch antenna. After successful completion of the design process through various simulations, the proposed antenna has been fabricated on printed circuit board (PCB) and its characteristics have been studied. The parameters of the proposed antenna prototype have been measured in standard far-field rectangular shape anechoic measurement compartment. It is apparent from the measured antenna parameters that the proposed antenna achieved almost stable variation of radiation pattern over the entire operational band with 1380 MHz of −10 dB return loss bandwidth. The maximum gain of 7.8 dBi and 89.97% average efficiency within the operating band from 17.15 GHz to 18.53 GHz ensure the suitability of the proposed antenna for Ku band applications.
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