The recently emerged COVID-19 disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has adversely affected the whole world. As a significant public health threat, it has spread worldwide. Scientists and global health experts are collaborating to find and execute speedy diagnostics, robust and highly effective vaccines, and therapeutic techniques to tackle COVID-19. The ocean is an immense source of biologically active molecules and/or compounds with antiviral-associated biopharmaceutical and immunostimulatory attributes. Some specific algae-derived molecules can be used to produce antibodies and vaccines to treat the COVID-19 disease. Algae have successfully synthesized several metabolites as natural defense compounds that enable them to survive under extreme environments. Several algae-derived bioactive molecules and/or compounds can be used against many diseases, including microbial and viral infections. Moreover, some algae species can also improve immunity and suppress human viral activity. Therefore, they may be recommended for use as a preventive remedy against COVID-19. Considering the above critiques and unique attributes, herein, we aimed to systematically assess algae-derived, biologically active molecules that could be used against this disease by looking at their natural sources, mechanisms of action, and prior pharmacological uses. This review also serves as a starting point for this research area to accelerate the establishment of anti-SARS-CoV-2 bioproducts.
Schizophrenia is a subtle disorder of brain development and plasticity; it affects the most basic human processes of perception, emotion, and judgment. In Bangladesh the traditional medical practitioners of rural and remote areas characterized the schizophrenia as an insanity or a mental problem due to possession by ghosts or evil spirits and they have used various plant species' to treat such symptoms. The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal plant survey and documentation of the formulations of different plant parts used by the traditional medical practitioners of Rangamati district of Bangladesh for the treatment of schizophrenia like psychosis. It was observed that the traditional medical practitioners used a total of 15 plant species to make 14 formulations. The plants were divided into 13 families, used for treatment of schizophrenia and accompanying symptoms like hallucination, depression, oversleeping or insomnia, deterioration of personal hygiene, forgetfulness, and fear due to evil spirits like genies or ghost. A search of the relevant scientific literatures showed that a number of plants used by the medicinal practitioners have been scientifically validated in their uses and traditional medicinal knowledge has been a means towards the discovery of many modern medicines. Moreover, the antipsychotic drug reserpine, isolated from the dried root of Rauvolfia serpentina species, revolutionized the treatment of schizophrenia. So it is very much possible that formulations of the practitioner, when examined scientifically in their entireties, can form discovery of lead compounds which can be used as safe and effective antipsychotic drug to treat schizophrenia.
Snakebite is the single most important toxin-related injury, causing substantial mortality in many parts of the Africa, Asia and the Americas. Incidence of snakebite is usually recorded in young people engaged in active physical work in rural areas. The various plant parts used to treat snakebite included whole plant, leaves, barks, roots and seeds. Most bites in Bangladesh are recorded between May and October with highest number in June. Lower and upper limbs are most common sites of snakebite, but it may happen in other sites as well. Snake venom (蛇毒 shé dú) has been the cause of innumerable deaths worldwide. However, antiserum does not provide enough protection against venom induced hemorrhage, necrosis, nephrotoxicity and hypersensitivity reactions. Informed consent was obtained from the practitioners prior to interviews. After the survey, it is concluded that the medicinal plants used by tribal medicinal practitioners in Bangladesh for treatment against snakebite are Acyranthes aspera L. (土牛膝 tǔ niú xī), Amaranthus Viridis L. (野莧菜 yě xiàng cài), Asparagus racemosus Willd (總序天冬 zǒng xù tiān dōng) and Emblica officinalis Gaertn (油柑 yóu gān), while the non-tribal communities used 35 plant species among them, most of the plants reported as new species used against snakebite in the belonging family. The plants present a considerable potential for discovery of novel compounds with fewer side effects for treatment of antisnake venom and can, at least in Bangladesh, become a source of affordable and more easily available drugs.
Lectins or clusters of carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-immune origin are distributed chiefly in the Plantae. Lectins have potent anti-infectivity properties for several RNA viruses including SARS-CoV-2. The primary purpose of this review is to review the ability of lectins mediated potential biotherapeutic and bioprophylactic strategy against coronavirus causing COVID-19. Lectins have binding affinity to the glycans of SARS-COV-2 Spike glycoprotein that has N-glycosylation sites. Apart from this, the complement lectin pathway is a “first line host defense” against the viral infection that is activated by mannose-binding lectins. Mannose-binding lectins deficiency in serum influences innate immunity of the host and facilitates infectious diseases including COVID-19. Our accumulated evidence obtained from scientific databases particularly PubMed and Google Scholar databases indicate that mannose-specific/mannose-binding lectins (MBL) have potent efficacies like anti-infectivity, complement cascade induction, immunoadjuvants, DC-SIGN antagonists, or glycomimetic approach, which can prove useful in the strategy of COVID-19 combat along with the glycobiological aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infections and antiviral immunity. For example, plant-derived mannose-specific lectins BanLac, FRIL, Lentil, and GRFT from red algae can inhibit and neutralize SARS-CoV-2 infectivity, as confirmed with in-vitro , in-vivo , and in-silico assessments. Furthermore, Bangladesh has a noteworthy resource of antiviral medicinal plants as well as plant lectins. Intensifying research on the antiviral plant lectins, adopting a glyco-biotechnological approach, and with deeper insights into the “glycovirological” aspects may result in the designing of alternative and potent blueprints against the 21st century's biological pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19
Background There is a worldwide interest in the use of Cannabis sativa for biomedicine purposes. Cannabis has ethnomedicinal usage as a natural medicine in Bangladesh and cultivated during the British Empire period for revenues. Objective Folk medicine practitioners (FMPs) from different districts of Bangladesh have been using Cannabis sativa, but until now there have not been any compiled studies particularly regarding this practice. Hence, this review is an effort to retrieve the traditional usage of Cannabis sativa as a phytomedicine from published ethnomedicinal studies. Methods and materials Information was searched by using the search terms “ethnomedicinal Cannabis sativa and Bangladesh”; “Bangladesh cannabaceae and ethnomedicinal survey”; “ganja, bhang and folk medicine Bangladesh”; “tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinoid and therapeutic, clinical trial”; and “cannabis and pharmacological/biological” and retrieved from ethnobotanical articles available on PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases. A search of the relevant scientific literature also was conducted to assess the efficacy of the ethnomedicinal usage of Cannabis sativa. Results While reviewing over 200 ethnomedicinal plants’ survey articles, we found that FMPs of Bangladesh from 12 different districts used Cannabis sativa to treat cited ailments like sleep-associated problems (n=5), neuropsychiatric and CNS problems (n=5), and infections and respiratory problems (n=5) followed by rheumatism, gastrointestinal, gynecological (n=4 each), cancer, sexual, and other ailments including hypertension, headache, itch, increases bile secretion, abortifacient, dandruff, fever, and urinary problems (n=1 each). There are a total of 15 formulations identified from the 11 out of 18 ethnomedicinal plant survey reports. The leaf was the main plant part used (53.8%), followed by root (23%), seed (7.7%) and flower, inflorescence, resin, and all parts 3.8% respectively. Conclusions Sales and cultivation of Cannabis are illegal at present in Bangladesh, but the use of Cannabis sativa as a natural phytomedicine has been practiced traditionally by folk medicine practitioners of Bangladesh for many years and validated through relevant pharmacological justification. Although Cannabis sativa possesses ethnomedicinal properties in the folk medicine of Bangladesh, it is, furthermore, needed to conduct biological research to consolidate pharmacological justification about the prospects and challenges of Cannabis and cannabinoids’ use in Bangladesh as safer biomedicine in the future.
Abstract.A flat mobile ad hoc network has an inherent scalability limitation. When the network size increases, per node throughput of an ad hoc network rapidly decreases. This is due to the act that in large scale networks, flat structure of networks results in long hop paths which are prone to breaks. These long hop paths can be avoided by building a physically hierarchical backbone network. These networks have some specific backbone capable nodes that have powerful radios and are functionally more capable than ordinary nodes.In this paper, a hybrid routing protocol for large scale networks with mobile backbones has been proposed. This routing protocol uses different types of routing schemes in different layers of hierarchical network which makes it easily extendable to support QoS as well. Along with hierarchical structure, a lowoverhead clustering scheme to elect backbone nodes has been proposed and works with our routing protocol without causing any extra overhead.
Cancer is a group of diseases which is categorized to differentiate into diverse cell types and move around in the body to sites of organogenesis that is key to the process of tumor genesis. All types of cancer fall into the group of malignant neoplastic diseases. In Bangladesh, cancer is now one of the foremost killer diseases and its personal, social, and economic bearing are huge. Plant-derived natural compounds (vincristine, vinblastine, etoposide, paclitaxel, camptothecin, topotecan, and irinotecan) are useful for the treatment of cancer. Since there is no extensive ethnobotanical research study in Bangladesh regarding the traditional uses of medicinal plants against neoplasms, therefore, a randomized ethnopharmacological surveys were carried out in 3 districts of Bangladesh to learn more about the usage of anticancer medicinal plants and their chemical constituents having antineoplastic activity. Comprehensive interviews were conducted to the folk medicine practitioners and medicinal plants as pointed out by them were photographed, collected, deposited, and identified at the Bangladesh National Herbarium. The various plant parts have been used by the healers which included whole plant, leaves, fruits, barks, roots, and seeds. This study evaluated considerable potential for discovery of novel compounds with less side effects in the management and prevention of malignancy in cancer.
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