By Greater Britain, Seeley was speaking of 'a real enlargement of the English State; it carries across the seas not merely the English race, but the authority of the English Government … [and where] in the main the inhabitants of the distant provinces are of the same nation as those of the dominant country' (p. 43).
This paper describes a research project, ''Voices from Manukau'', that investigated the impact of a joint initiative by a university and an institute of technology in New Zealand. The purpose of the initiative was to increase the participation of students traditionally under represented at tertiary-level study, particularly Māori (indigenous people) and individuals from Pacific Island nations. Many of the participants were adults who had not experienced high levels of success during their compulsory period of education and they lived in low socio-economic areas. We found that participation of under-represented groups increased. The ''Manukau'' students were as successful as other undergraduate students studying at the university. Of particular interest was the high level of success of Māori and Pacific Island students.
This article explores the nature, scope and form of third-sector involvement in education in New Zealand as demonstrated through a comparison of its relationship with the state in two distinct periods of state and educational development. It begins with an analysis of the period of state expansion from crown colony to centralised administration in the mid-1870s. It then examines the relationship in the decade following the restructuring of education in 1989, as the neoliberal state negotiated economic changes at the national and supranational levels, and challenges to the existing educational organisation from both the political left and the political right. Although an almost mirror image of nineteenth-century arrangements is identified, the nature of the state/third-sector relationship was vastly different as a smaller, but nonetheless stronger, state retained control over the governance of education and, with it, possibilities and limitations for third-sector involvement.
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With British colonization from the late eighteenth century came attempts to school indigenous and nonindigenous populations in ways familiar to colonizers. This was so in Australia and New Zealand. Writing histories that respect the indigenous experience of education has been a challenge. Mainstream historiography concentrated on the growth of schools and school systems as they provided for the colonizing populations from Britain. Colonial and postcolonial struggles among private interests, churches, and the state over schooling were the common subjects of research. Beginning in the 1970s revisionist historians have often written in terms of social history. Relationships between schooling and different social classes, indigenous students, teachers, and girls and women students often inform more recent writing. Traditional biographies of educators, histories of schools and school systems, and curriculum and pedagogy have not been neglected, but the influence of recent international historiography has impacted research into the history of education in Australia and New Zealand.
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