Brain trauma causes the onset of an inflammatory process within the dural border cell layer; high levels of inflammatory cytokines were significantly correlated with recurrence and layering CSDH. A prolonged postoperative antiinflammatory medicine given as prophylaxis may help prevent the recurrence of a CSDH.
BackgroundAdaptation to hypoxia and consequent pro-inflammatory gene expression of prostate and breast carcinomas have been implicated in the progression toward cancer malignant phenotype. Only partial data are available for the human tumor glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The aim of our study was to analyze the hypoxic and pro-inflammatory microenvironment in GBMs and to demonstrate that in a stem/progenitor cell line derived from human glioblastoma (GBM-SCs), hypoxia activates a coordinated inflammatory response, evidencing an invasive and migratory phenotype.MethodsFrom each of 10 human solid glioblastomas, clinically and histopathologically characterized, we obtained three surgical samples taken from the center and the periphery of the tumor, and from adjacent host normal tissue. Molecular and morphological analyses were carried out using quantitative real-time PCR and western blot (WB). GBM stem and differentiated cells were incubated under hypoxic conditions and analyzed for pro-inflammatory gene expression and for invasive/migratory behavior.ResultsA panel of selected representative pro-inflammatory genes (RAGE and P2X7R, COX2, NOS2 and, PTX3) were analyzed, comparing tumor, peritumor and host normal tissues. Tumors containing leukocyte infiltrates (as assessed using CD45 immunohistochemistry) were excluded. Selected genes were overexpressed in the central regions of the tumors (i.e. in the more hypoxic areas), less expressed in peripheral regions, and poorly expressed or absent in adjacent normal host tissues. Western blot analysis confirmed that the corresponding pro-inflammatory proteins were also differently expressed. Hypoxic stem cell lines showed a clear time-dependent activation of the entire panel of pro-inflammatory genes as compared to differentiated tumor cells. Biological assays showed that invasive and migratory behavior was strengthened by hypoxia only in GBM stem cells.ConclusionsIn human solid glioblastoma we have observed a coordinated overexpression of a panel of pro-inflammatory genes as compared to host normal tissue. We have also evidenced a similar pattern of overexpressed genes in GBM-SCs after hypoxic treatment, showing also a gain of invasive and migratory function that was lost when these stem cells differentiated. We suggest that, as has been previously described for prostatic and mammary carcinoma, in human glioblastoma acquisition of a proinflammatory phenotype may be relevant for malignant progression.
The blood-brain barrier is a highly selective anatomical and functional interface allowing a unique environment for neuro-glia networks. Blood-brain barrier dysfunction is common in most brain disorders and is associated with disease course and delayed complications. However, the mechanisms underlying blood-brain barrier opening are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate the role of the neurotransmitter glutamate in modulating early barrier permeability in vivo. Using intravital microscopy, we show that recurrent seizures and the associated excessive glutamate release lead to increased vascular permeability in the rat cerebral cortex, through activation of NMDA receptors. NMDA receptor antagonists reduce barrier permeability in the peri-ischemic brain, whereas neuronal activation using high-intensity magnetic stimulation increases barrier permeability and facilitates drug delivery. Finally, we conducted a double-blind clinical trial in patients with malignant glial tumors, using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to quantitatively assess blood-brain barrier permeability. We demonstrate the safety of stimulation that efficiently increased blood-brain barrier permeability in 10 of 15 patients with malignant glial tumors. We suggest a novel mechanism for the bidirectional modulation of brain vascular permeability toward increased drug delivery and prevention of delayed complications in brain disorders.
Background. Osteosarcomas are typically long bone tumors and rarely affect the skull, with most articles reporting single cases. As elsewhere in the body, these lesions may be classified as primary or secondary, chiefly post‐Paget and post–radiation therapy.
Methods. The authors reviewed the osteosarcomas of the skull diagnosed at the Division of Neurosurgery of “La Sapienza” University of Rome. The patients were placed into two groups, according to the treatment received (prechemotherapeutic era and chemotherapeutic era). In the last five patients, a diagnostic‐therapeutic protocol was adopted.
Results. The most effective investigations are plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT) with bone windows, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with the latter two allowing assessment of the extraosseous extent of the disease. Chemotherapy has changed the prognosis dramatically, achieving cure in some cases (especially in de novo osteosarcomas). Before the age of chemotherapy, the median survival length was 16 months, but since its introduction, five of nine patients in this study are alive 2 years after diagnosis. The onset of metastases, chiefly to the lung, does not necessarily imply a poor prognosis. The authors propose a schedule for the diagnosis and treatment of new cases of osteosarcoma of the skull.
Conclusions. Plain radiographs, CT targeted on the bone, and MRI are the most important diagnostic tools. Aggressive chemotherapy together with surgery (eventually including local radiation therapy in nontotal macroscopic surgical removal of the lesions) can drastically modify the prognosis of de novo and post‐radiation therapy osteosarcomas.
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) and concomitant temozolomide (TMZ) as a salvage treatment option in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). Between May 2006 and December 2009, 36 patients with recurrent GBM received FSRT plus concomitant TMZ at University of Rome La Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital. All patients had Karnofsky performance score ≥60 and were previously treated with standard conformal radiotherapy (RT) (60 Gy) with concomitant and adjuvant TMZ for 6-12 cycles. The median time interval between primary RT and reirradiation was 14 months. At the time of recurrence, all patients received FSRT plus concomitant daily TMZ at the dose of 75 mg/m(2), given 7 days per week from the first day of RT. Radiation dose was 37.5 Gy delivered in 15 fractions over 3 weeks. Median overall survival after FSRT was 9.7 months, and the 6- and 12-month survival rates were 84 and 33%, respectively. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5 months, and 6- and 12-month PFS rates were 42 and 8%, respectively. In univariate analysis, KPS (P = 0.04), the interval between primary RT and reirradiation (P = 0.02), and O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.009) had an effect on survival; however, in multivariate analysis, only MGMT methylation was statistically significant (P = 0.03). In general, FSRT was well tolerated and the treatment was completed in all patients. Neurological deterioration due to radiation-induced necrosis occurred in three patients (8%). FSRT plus concomitant TMZ is a feasible treatment option associated with survival benefits and low risk of complications in selected patients with recurrent GBM. The potential advantages of combined chemoradiation schedules in patients with recurrent GBM need to be explored in future studies.
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