The use of inoculants containing plant growth-promoting bacteria is an alternative to increase the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers. Studies evaluating the effects of inoculation on forage yield, straw yield, and grain yield in dual-purpose wheat cultivars are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the forage yield and grain yield in dual-purpose wheat inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense and fertilized with increasing nitrogen rates during two agricultural years (2016-2017) under cutting management. The trial was carried out in a completely randomized block design with four replicates, using a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement. The factors were the inoculation (control or A. brasilense) and nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 of N). Forage, grain and straw yield, and number of tillers were evaluated. Forage yield differed between treatments with inoculation and without inoculation, 3952 and 3350 kg DM ha-1, respectively. There was no effect of inoculation on grain yield. The forage and leaf biomass yield, the number of tillers and straw yield increased with inoculation.
Mixed pasture grass-legume systems balance forage supply and minimize environmental impacts by reducing the need for nitrogen fertilization. Pinto peanut (Arachis pintoi Krap. and Greg. “Amarillo”) has several traits that are suitable for mixed pastures but have not yet been adequately explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate a mixture of Tifton 85 bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) and pinto peanut and evaluate forage yield, crude protein, and stocking density. A two-year study of three grazing systems was used with the following treatment combinations: (a) Tifton 85 (T) + 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1 + pinto peanut (T + PP+100); (b) T + 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (T + 100; control, pure grass); and (c) T + 200 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (T + 200; positive control, pure grass). In this study, forage yield, pasture characteristics and responses of lactating cows were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized with three treatments (grazing systems), three replicates (paddocks), and repeated measures (grazing cycles within seasons). Forage accumulation, crude protein concentration, and stocking rate were 15.1; 11.3 and 14.1 t DM ha-1 yr-1; 17%, 16%, and 17%; and 5.3; 4.9 and 6.1 AU ha-1 day-1, respectively. The grass-legume system yielded the best results.
RESUMO Esta pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade de dois genótipos de trigo de duplo propósito, BRS Tarumã e BRS Umbu, submetidos ao pastejo com vacas em lactação. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com dois tratamentos (genótipos), três repetições (piquetes) e medidas repetidas no tempo (pastejos). Avaliaram-se a precocidade, a composição estrutural dos trigos, as produções de forragem e de biomassa de lâminas foliares, as taxas de acúmulo diário de forragem e de lâminas foliares, a taxa de lotação, as ofertas de forragem e de lâminas foliares, a eficiência de pastejo, o consumo aparente e a produção de grãos. O trigo mais precoce para produção de forragem foi o BRS Umbu. Houve diferença para a produção de forragem (3196 vs. 4143kg MS/ha) e de lâminas foliares (2281 vs. 3205kg MS/ha) para os genótipos BRS Umbu e BRS Tarumã, respectivamente. Valores similares foram encontrados para taxa de lotação (2,26UA/ha); eficiência de pastejo (52,26%), consumo aparente (2,91%) e produção de grãos (1716kg/ha). O genótipo BRS Tarumã é o mais indicado para o manejo de duplo propósito em condições de pastejo com vacas em lactação. Palavras-chave: cereais de inverno, forragem, grãos, Triticum aestivum ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to evaluate the productivity of two dual-purpose wheat genotypes BRS Tarumã and BRS Umbu under grazing with lactating cows. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two treatments, three replications (paddocks) and repeated measures (grazing cycles).Studied variables were early growth, the structural composition of wheat, forage production, leaf blade biomass, the stocking rate, the herbage and leaf blade allowance, the grazing efficiency, the herbage intake and grain yield. The earliest genotype for forage production was the BRS Umbu. Differences in herbage yield between BRS Umbu and BRS Tarumã genotypes (3196 vs. 4143kg DM/ha)
-The objective of this research was to estimate three pasture-based systems mixed with elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species, annual ryegrass, for pasture-based system 1; elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species + forage peanut, for pasture-based system 2; and elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species + annual ryegrass + red clover, for pasturebased system 3. Elephantgrass was planted in rows 4 m apart from each other. During the cool-season, annual ryegrass was sown in the alleys between the rows of elephantgrass; forage peanut and red clover were sown in the alleys between the elephantgrass according to the respective treatment. The experimental design was totally randomized in the three treatments (pasture-based systems), two replicates (paddocks) in completely split-plot time (grazing cycles). Holstein cows receiving 5.5 kg-daily complementary concentrate feed were used in the evaluation. Pre-grazing forage mass, botanical composition and stocking rate were evaluated. Samples of simulated grazing were collected to analyze organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), crude protein (CP) and organic matter in situ digestibility (OMISD). Nine grazing cycles were performed during the experimental period (341 days). The average dry matter values for pre-grazing and stocking rate were 3.34; 3.46; 3.79 t/ha, and 3.28; 3.34; 3.60 AU/ha for each respective pasture-based system. Similar results were observed between the pasture-based systems for OM, NDF, CP and OMISD. Considering forage mass, stocking rate and nutritive value, the pasturebased system intercropped with forage legumes presented better performance.
In the south of Brazil, one of the major limitations to milk production is the low forage availability during autumn and early winter. The use of dual-purpose wheat genotypes is one alternative to minimize the impact of low forage availability in addition to produce grains. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value of two dual-purpose wheat genotypes (BRS Tarumã and BRS Umbu). Structural composition and forage nitrogen uptake were evaluated. The nutritional value of the forage was analyzed for mineral matter (MM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), crude protein (CP), total digestible nutrients (TDN), in situ organic matter digestibility (ISOMD) and in situ dry matter digestibility (ISDMD). Differences in NDF (49.03 vs. 46.44%), CP (24.4 vs. 27.4%), ISOMD (83.53 vs. 85.45%), ISDMD (83.59 vs. 86.65%) and TDN (75.37 vs. 78.39) for BRS Umbu and BRS Tarumã genotypes were detected, respectively. The BRS Umbu genotype had a lower leaf blade proportion and forage nitrogen uptake. The dual-purpose wheat genotype BRS Tarumã was superior in nutritive value.
Three pasture-based systems (PS) with bermuda grass (BG) + forage peanut + 75 kg of N ha-1; BG + common vetch + 75 kg of N ha-1 and BG + 150 kg of N ha-1 were evaluated. Lactating Holstein cows were used for evaluation and the experimental design was completely randomized. Forage mass, botanical and structural composition, daily dry matter accumulation rate and stocking rate were evaluated. Samples were collected by hand-plucking method to analyze crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), (ISDMD), in situ organic matter digestibility (ISOMD) and total digestible nutrients (TDN). Average forage production and stocking rate were 13.8; 15.3 and 16.1 t ha-1 and 5.6; 6.4 and 5.5 UA ha-1 day-1 for PS respectively. Average CP and NDF were 16.4; 22.2 and 15.3%; 68.3; 65.7 and 66.3%; for ISDMD, ISOMD and TDN were 68.5; 70.3 and 66.4%; 64.3; 63.2 and 65.3%; 57.3; 58.3 and 57.5%, for PS respectively. Best results were reported on bermuda grass mixed with common vetch.
The objective of this work was to quantify the inoculation effect of Azospirillum brasilense (Ab-V5 and Ab-V6 strains) on the forage yield, biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), and urea-15N recovery of the forage grass 'Coastcross-1'. The experiment was carried out in a 2 (with or without inoculation) × 2 (without N fertilizer and with 100 kg ha-1 N per year as urea) × 7 (cuts) factorial arrangement. The natural 15N abundance method was used to determine BNF; to determine urea-N recovery, 15N-labeled urea was applied in microplots. Forage yield was higher in grasses subjected to inoculation, with 7.4 Mg ha-1 dry matter per year, for the treatment without N fertilizer, and 8.0 Mg ha-1 dry matter per year for the treatment with 100 kg ha-1 N per year, respectively, which shows an additive effect of inoculation and N fertilization. The contribution of BNF was 23.0 and 53.8 kg ha-1 per year for the unfertilized treatment, both in uninoculated and inoculated plants, respectively. Urea-15N recovery was 13.7 and 16.5 kg ha-1 per year for uninoculated and inoculated treatments, respectively, corresponding to 13.7 and 16.5% of the urea-N applied. Inoculation with A. brasilense increases forage yield and the contribution of BNF to grass nutrition with N, as well as urea-N recovery by the forage grass.
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