Butanol, an alcohol which can be produced from biomass sources, has received recent interest as an alternative to gasoline for use in spark ignition engines and as a possible blending compound with fossil diesel or biodiesel. Therefore, the autoignition of the four isomers of butanol (1-butanol, 2-butanol, iso-butanol, and tert-butanol) has been experimentally studied at high temperatures in a shock tube, and a kinetic mechanism for description of their high-temperature oxidation has been developed. Ignition delay times for butanol/oxygen/argon mixtures have been measured behind reflected shock waves at temperatures and pressures ranging from approximately 1200 to 1800 K and 1 to 4 bar. Electronically excited OH emission and pressure measurements were used to determine ignition-delay times. The influence of temperature, pressure, and mixture composition on ignition delay has been characterized. A detailed kinetic mechanism has been developed to describe the oxidation of the butanol isomers and validated by comparison to the shock-tube measurements. Reaction flux and sensitivity analysis illustrates the relative importance of the three competing classes of consumption reactions during the oxidation of the four butanol isomers: dehydration, unimolecular decomposition, and H-atom abstraction. Kinetic modeling indicates that the consumption of 1-butanol and iso-butanol, the most reactive isomers, takes place primarily by H-atom abstraction resulting in the formation of radicals, the decomposition of which yields highly reactive branching agents, H atoms and OH radicals. Conversely, the consumption of tert-butanol and 2-butanol, the least reactive isomers, takes place primarily via dehydration, resulting in the formation of alkenes, which lead to resonance stabilized radicals with very low reactivity. To our knowledge, the ignition-delay measurements and oxidation mechanism presented here for 2-butanol, iso-butanol, and tert-butanol are the first of their kind.
As regulatory measures for improved fuel economy and decreased emissions are pushing gasoline engine combustion technologies towards extreme conditions (i.e., boosted and intercooled intake with exhaust gas recirculation), fuel ignition characteristics become increasingly important for enabling stable operation. This study explores the effects of chemical composition on the fundamental ignition behavior of gasoline fuels. Two well-characterized, high-octane, non-oxygenated FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasolines, FACE F and FACE G, having similar antiknock indices but different octane sensitivities and chemical compositions are studied. Ignition experiments were conducted in shock tubes and a rapid compression machine (RCM) at nominal pressures of 20 and 40 atm, equivalence ratios of 0.5 and 1.0, and temperatures ranging from 650 to 1270 K. Results at temperatures above 900 K indicate that ignition delay time is similar for these fuels. However, RCM measurements below 900 K demonstrate a stronger negative temperature coefficient behavior for the FACE F gasoline having lower octane sensitivity. In addition, RCM pressure profiles under two-stage ignition conditions illustrate that the magnitude of low-temperature heat release (LTHR) increases with decreasing fuel octane sensitivity. However, intermediate-temperature heat release is shown to increase as fuel octane sensitivity increases. Various surrogate fuel mixtures were formulated to conduct chemical kinetic modeling, and complex KAUST multicomponent surrogate mixtures were shown to reproduce experimentally observed trends better than simpler two-and three-component mixtures composed of n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene. Measurements in a Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) engine demonstrated that the KAUST multicomponent surrogates accurately captured the antiknock quality of the FACE gasolines. Simulations were performed using multicomponent surrogates for FACE F and G to reveal the underlying chemical kinetics linking fuel composition with ignition characteristics. A key discovery of this work is the kinetic coupling between aromatics and naphthenes, which affects the radical pool population and thereby controls ignition.
Experimental data obtained in this study (Part II) complement the speciation data presented in Part I, but also offer a basis for extensive facility cross-comparisons for both experimental ignition delay time (IDT) and laminar flame speed (LFS) observables.To improve understanding of the ignition characteristics of propene, a series IDT experiments were performed in six different shock tubes and two rapid compression machines (RCMs) under conditions not previously studied. This study is the first of its kind to directly compare ignition in several different shock tubes over a wide range of conditions. For common nominal reaction conditions among these facilities, cross-comparison of shock tube IDTs suggests 20-30% reproducibility (2σ) for the IDT observable. The combination of shock tube and RCM data greatly expands the data available for validation of propene oxidation models to higher pressures (2-40 atm) and lower temperatures (750-1750 K).Propene flames were studied at pressures from 1-20 atm and unburned gas temperatures of 295-398 K for a range of equivalence ratios and dilutions in different facilities. The present propene-air LFS results at 1 atm were also compared to LFS measurements from the literature. With respect to initial reaction conditions, the present experimental LFS cross-comparison is not as comprehensive as the IDT comparison; however, it still suggests reproducibility limits for the LFS observable. For the LFS results, there was agreement between certain data sets and for certain equivalence ratios (mostly in the lean region), but the remaining discrepancies highlight the need to reduce uncertainties in laminar flame speed experiments amongst different groups and different methods. Moreover, this is the first study to investigate the burning rate characteristics of propene at elevated pressures (> 5 atm).IDT and LFS measurements are compared to predictions of the chemical kinetic mechanism presented in Part I and good agreement is observed.
A detailed kinetic model describing the oxidation of 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF), a potential second-generation biofuel, is proposed. The kinetic model is based upon quantum chemical calculations for the initial DMF consumption reactions and important reactions of intermediates. The model is validated by comparison to new DMF shock tube ignition delay time measurements (over the temperature range 1300-1831 K and at nominal pressures of 1 and 4 bar) and the DMF pyrolysis speciation measurements of Lifshitz et al. [ J. Phys. Chem. A 1998 , 102 ( 52 ), 10655 - 10670 ]. Globally, modeling predictions are in good agreement with the considered experimental targets. In particular, ignition delay times are predicted well by the new model, with model-experiment deviations of at most a factor of 2, and DMF pyrolysis conversion is predicted well, to within experimental scatter of the Lifshitz et al. data. Additionally, comparisons of measured and model predicted pyrolysis speciation provides validation of theoretically calculated channels for the oxidation of DMF. Sensitivity and reaction flux analyses highlight important reactions as well as the primary reaction pathways responsible for the decomposition of DMF and formation and destruction of key intermediate and product species.
Isobutene is an important intermediate in the pyrolysis and oxidation of higher-order branched alkanes, and it is also a component of commercial gasolines. To better understand its combustion characteristics, a series of ignition delay time (IDT) and laminar flame speed (LFS) measurements have been performed. In addition, flow reactor speciation data recorded for the pyrolysis and oxidation of isobutene is also reported. Predictions of an updated kinetic model described herein are compared with each of these data sets, as well as with existing jet-stirred reactor (JSR) species measurements.IDTs of isobutene oxidation were measured in four different shock tubes and in two rapid compression machines (RCMs) under conditions of relevance to practical combustors. The combination of shock tube and RCM data greatly expands the range of available validation data for isobutene oxidation models to pressures of 50 atm and temperatures in the range 666-1715 K. Isobutene flame speeds were measured experimentally at 1 atm and at unburned gas temperatures of 298-398 K over a wide range of equivalence ratios. For the flame speed results, there was good agreement between different facilities and the current model in the fuel-rich region.Ab initio chemical kinetics calculations were carried out to calculate rate constants for important reactions such as H-atom abstraction by hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and the decomposition of 2-methylallyl radicals.A comprehensive chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed to describe the combustion of isobutene and is validated by comparison to the presently considered experimental measurements. Important reactions, highlighted via flux and sensitivity analyses, include: (a) hydrogen atom abstraction from isobutene by hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals, and molecular oxygen; (b) radical-radical recombination reactions, including 2-methylallyl radical self-recombination, the recombination of 2-methylallyl radicals with hydroperoxyl radicals; and the recombination of 2-methylallyl radicals with methyl radicals; (c) addition reactions, including hydrogen atom and 2 hydroxyl radical addition to isobutene; and (d) 2-methylallyl radical decomposition reactions. The current mechanism accurately predicts the IDT and LFS measurements presented in this study, as well as the JSR and flow reactor speciation data already available in the literature.The differences in low-temperature chemistry between alkanes and alkenes are also highlighted in this work. In normal alkanes, the fuel radical Ṙ adds to molecular oxygen forming alkylperoxyl (RȮ 2 ) radicals followed by isomerization and chain branching reactions which promote low-temperature fuel reactivity. However, in alkenes, because of the relatively shallow well (~20 kcal mol -1 ) for RȮ 2 formation compared to ~35 kcal mol -1 in alkanes, the Ṙ + O 2 ⇌ RȮ 2 equilibrium lies more to the left favoring Ṙ + O 2 rather than RȮ 2 radical stabilization. Based on this work, and related studies of allylic systems, it is apparent that reactivity fo...
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