A prospective, multicentre, open‐label, blinded‐endpoint, randomized controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of treatment with ipragliflozin (sodium‐dependent glucose transporter‐2 inhibitor) versus metformin for visceral fat reduction and glycaemic control among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes treated with sitagliptin, HbA1c levels of 7%‐10%, and body mass index (BMI) ≥ 22 kg/m2. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive ipragliflozin 50 mg or metformin 1000‐1500 mg daily. The primary outcome was change in visceral fat area as measured by computed tomography after 24 weeks of therapy. The secondary outcomes were effects on glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism. Mean percentage reduction in visceral fat area was significantly greater in the ipragliflozin group than in the metformin group (−12.06% vs. −3.65%, P = 0.040). Ipragliflozin also significantly reduced BMI, subcutaneous fat area, waist circumference, fasting insulin, and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)‐resistance, and increased HDL‐cholesterol levels. Metformin significantly reduced HbA1c and LDL‐cholesterol levels and increased HOMA‐beta. There were no severe adverse events. The use of ipragliflozin or metformin in combination with dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitors, widely used in Japan, may have beneficial effects in ameliorating multiple cardiovascular risk factors.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) provides the energy for vital cellular functions and is known to act as an antioxidant. We conducted an open label study to examine the clinical effects of supplementation of the reduced form of CoQ10, ubiquinol, in addition to conventional glucose-lowering agents in patients with type 2 diabetes. Nine subjects (3 males and 6 females) with type 2 diabetes and receiving conventional medication were recruited. The subjects were assigned to receive an oral dose of 200 mg ubiquinol daily for 12 weeks. The effect of ubiquinol on blood pressure, lipid profile, glycemic control, oxidative stress, and inflammation were examined before and after ubiquinol supplementation. In addition, five healthy volunteers were also assigned to receive an oral dose of 200 mg ubiquinol daily for 4 weeks to examine the effects of ubiquinol on insulin secretion. In patients with diabetes, there were no differences with respect to blood pressure, lipid profile, oxidative stress marker, and inflammatory markers. However, there were significant improvements in glycosylated hemoglobin (53.0 ± 4.3 to 50.5 ± 3.7 mmol/mol, P = 0.01) (7.1 ± 0.4 to 6.8 ± 0.4%, P = 0.03). In healthy volunteers, the insulinogenic index (0.65 ± 0.29 to 1.23 ± 0.56, P = 0.02) and the ratio of proinsulin to insulin were significantly improved (3.4 ± 1.8 to 2.1 ± 0.6, P = 0.03). The results of our study are consistent with the suggestion that the supplementation of ubiquinol in subjects with type 2 diabetes, in addition to conventional antihyperglycemic medications, improves glycemic control by improving insulin secretion without any adverse effects
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of end-stage kidney disease; however, there are few treatment options. Inflammation plays a crucial role in the initiation and/or progression of DN. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide, which was originally isolated from the ovine hypothalamus and reportedly has diverse biological functions. It has been reported that PACAP has renoprotective effects in different models of kidney pathology. However, the specific cell types within the kidney that are protected by PACAP have not yet been reported. In this study, we localized VPAC1, one of the PACAP receptors, to glomerular podocytes, which also reportedly has crucial roles not only in glomerular physiology but also in pathology. PACAP was effective in the downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-6, which had been induced by the activation of toll-like receptor (TLR) with lipopolysaccharide. PACAP also had downregulated the expression of MCP-1 through the protein kinase A signaling pathway; this led to the attenuation of the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor-kappa B signaling. Our results suggested that PACAP could be a possible treatment option for DN through the use of anti-inflammation effects on glomerular podocytes.
Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare inheritable progeroid syndrome caused by a mutation in the WRN gene. Although WS has been described as a characteristic appearance of very slender extremities with a stocky trunk, few studies have investigated the loss of muscle mass, fat mass distribution (body composition), and mobility according to age and sex. Therefore, the aim of this study was to precisely describe the body composition in WS. Nine Japanese patients with WS (four males and five females; mean age 48±8.8 years) were recruited. Body composition was examined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography (CT). The hand grip strength and mobility were evaluated using the two-step test, stand-up test and 25-question geriatric locomotive function scale. The mean skeletal muscle index (SMI) was 4.0±0.6 kg/m. SMI of all patients met the criteria of sarcopenia, even though some patients were aged < 40 years. All patients also showed deceased mobility. In conclusion, these results indicate that all patients with WS, even those aged < 40 years, had already lost muscle mass to the level of sarcopenia. Continued research on sarcopenia in WS might facilitate the discovery of novel mechanisms and development of new treatment strategies for sarcopenia.
Recent randomized clinical trials have suggested that sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors might reduce cardiovascular events and heart failure, and have renal protective effects. Despite these remarkable benefits, the effects of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on bone and muscle are unclear.
Materials and Methods
A subanalysis of a randomized controlled study was carried out to evaluate the effects of the sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, ipragliflozin, versus metformin on bone and muscle in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (baseline body mass index ≥22 kg/m2 and hemoglobin A1c 7–10%) who were already receiving sitagliptin. These patients were randomly administered ipragliflozin 50 mg or metformin 1,000–1,500 mg daily. The effects of these medications on the bone formation marker, bone alkali phosphatase; the bone resorption marker, tartrate‐resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP‐5b); handgrip strength; abdominal cross‐sectional muscle area; and bone density of the fourth lumbar vertebra were evaluated.
After 24 weeks of treatment, the changes in bone density of the fourth lumbar vertebra, handgrip strength and abdominal cross‐sectional muscle area were not significantly different between the two groups. However, TRACP‐5b levels increased in patients treated with ipragliflozin compared with patients treated with metformin (median 11.94 vs −10.30%, P < 0.0001), showing that ipragliflozin can promote bone resorption.
There were no adverse effects on bone or muscle when sitagliptin was used in combination with either ipragliflozin or metformin. However, ipragliflozin combination increased the levels of TRACP‐5b. A long‐term study is required to further understand the effects of this TRACP‐5b increase caused by ipragliflozin.
The increased frequency of individuals with WS with the compound heterozygous genotype is a recent trend in Japan. A long-term follow-up study on WRN homozygotes and compound heterozygotes will allow the relationship between WRN genotype and clinical severity of WS to be evaluated in the future.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.