Are nonsmoking physicians more likely to give smoking cessation advice to their patients? To determine this, we sent a questionnaire individually to physicians in Tokyo. The average age of the 323 respondents was 59.8±12.9 (mean+SD); 84.8% of them were male and 21.1% were smokers. Amongthe respondents, 88.8% asked their patients about their smoking status, 79.9% advised smoking patients to stop, and 93.5% believed smoking cessation interventions to be necessary. Nonsmokingphysicians were more likely to advise patients to stop smoking (85.6%) than smoking physicians (70.1 % ); the smoking physicians who themselves wished to reduce cigarette consumption or stop smoking were more likely to do so (85.0%) than those who did not wish to reduce or stop (43.5%).Moreover, more nonsmoking physicians seriously felt that smoking cessation interventions are necessary (31.2%) than did smoking physicians (6.5%). In conclusion, the smoking status and attitude towards smoking of physicians influences their enthusiasm to give advice to their patients against smoking.
Photorealistic animated images are extremely effective for pre‐evaluating visual impact of city renewal and construction of tall buildings. In order to generate a photorealistic image not only the direct sunlight but also skylight must be considered.
This paper proposes a method of high‐fidelity image generation for photorealistic outdoor scenes based on the following ideas:
The intensity distribution of skylight taking account of scattering and absorption due to particles in the atmosphere which coincides with CIE standard skylight luminance functions is sought, and realistic images considering about spectrum distribution of skylight for any altitude of the sun can be easily and accurately displayed.
A rectangular parallelepiped with a specialized distribution of intensity simulating the skylight is introduced for efficient calculation of illumination due to skylight, and by employing a graphics hardware calculation of the skylight illuminance taking into account shadow effects is obtained with high efficiency; these techniques can be used to generate sequences of images, making animations possible at far lower calculation cost than previous methods.
Abstract. Polarization is a phenomenon that cannot be observed by the human eye, but it provides rich information regarding scenes. The proposed method estimates the surface normal of black specular objects through polarization analysis of reflected light. A unique surface normal cannot be determined from a polarization image observed from a single viewpoint; thus, we observe the object from multiple viewpoints. To analyze the polarization state of the reflected light at the corresponding points when observed from multiple viewpoints, the abstract shape is predetermined using a space carving technique. Unlike a conventional photometric stereo or multiview stereo, which cannot estimate the shape of a black specular object, the proposed method estimates the surface normal and three-dimensional coordinates of black specular objects via polarization analysis and space carving.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.