This paper proposes a framework for a dynamic pedestrian model with a strategic route choice model and multidirectional flow propagation. In an open urban area, a massive number of possible pedestrian paths can be defined. However, psychologically the pedestrian does not consider all these paths as distinct options. Thus, this paper assumes the pedestrian chooses a series of consecutive subareas to traverse in the first instance. Then, the model allocates the actual flows on each detailed route on the basis of an assumption of dynamic user optimum. Combining these two stages, the model assumes a hierarchical decision of pedestrians’ route choice. A modified cell transmission model (CTM) is adopted to represent the physical phenomena of dynamic propagation of the pedestrian flows. A key difference from the original CTM is that the pedestrian flow is multidirectional by nature. This paper proposes a modified CTM to consider the multidirectional movement. The proposed modified CTM is then assessed with a test case.
Several researchers have analyzed queueing patterns at bottleneck sites on freeways during the morning peak. However, all previous studies have assumed that each commuter passes only one bottleneck during his commuting trip. Here, we consider the possibility that some commuters pass two bottlenecks on their way to work. The objective is to obtain cumulative arrival curves at each of the two bottlenecks, given who passes both bottlenecks and who passes only one, and their desired arrival times at their work places (work starting times). Each commuter using the freeway is assumed to have the same travel cost function which consists of time-dependent costs due to queueing delay (waiting time in a queue) and schedule delay (the time difference between his actual and desired arrival time at the work place). Commuter trips are assigned temporally so as to establish an equilibrium in which each commuter seeks to minimize his travel cost. The queue evolutions illustrate a service priority at the downstream bottleneck in favor of commuters passing only the downstream bottleneck. One of the countermeasures for this equity problem in the service priority would be to meter the favored commuters.
This paper studies the effect of rain on travel demand measured on the Tokyo Metropolitan Expressway (MEX). Rainfall data monitored by the Japan Meteorological Agency's meso-scale network of weather stations are used. This study found that travel demand decreases during rainy days and, in particular, larger reductions occur over the weekend. The effect of rainfall on the number of accidents recorded on 10 routes on the MEX is also analysed. Statistical testing shows that the average frequency of accidents, during periods of rainfall, is significantly different from the average frequency at other times.
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