We theoretically demonstrate for the first time that a single free electron in circular/spiral motion emits twisted photons carrying well defined orbital angular momentum along the axis of the electron circulation, in adding to spin angular momentum. We show that, when the electron velocity is relativistic, the radiation field contains harmonic components and the photons of l-th harmonic carry l total angular momentum for each. This work indicates that twisted photons are naturally emitted by free electrons and more ubiquitous in laboratories and in nature than ever been thought.
Inverse Thomson scattering is a well-known radiation process that produces high-energy photons both in nature and in the laboratory. Nonlinear inverse Thomson scattering occurring inside an intense light field is a process which generates higher harmonic photons. In this paper, we theoretically show that the higher harmonic gamma-ray produced by nonlinear inverse Thomson scattering of circularly polarized light is a gamma-ray vortex, which means that it possesses a helical wave front and carries orbital angular momentum. Our work explains a recent experimental result regarding nonlinear inverse Thomson scattering that clearly shows an annular intensity distribution as a remarkable feature of a vortex beam. Our work implies that gamma-ray vortices should be produced in various situations in astrophysics in which high-energy electrons and intense circularly polarized light fields coexist. Nonlinear inverse Thomson scattering is a promising radiation process for realizing a gamma-ray vortex source based on currently available laser and accelerator technologies, which would be an indispensable tool for exploring gamma-ray vortex science.
Binding equilibria of a water-soluble chelating polymer, poly(acrylic acid), with divalent metal ions [Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), and Pb(II)] were measured by a batch ultrafiltration method in the pH range of 4-6. It was shown that the binding equilibrium curves were reasonably well represented by a complexation model accounting for the formation of three kinds of complexes [LM + , L 2 M, and L 2 M(HL) 2 ]. The equilibrium and successive stability constants were determined by fitting the binding curves calculated from the model to the experimental ones at every solution pH. The average coordination number was discussed on the basis of the complexation model proposed.
We theoretically show that a single free electron in circular motion radiates an electromagnetic wave possessing helical phase structure, which is closely related to orbital angular momentum carried by it. We experimentally demonstrate it by interference and double-slit diffraction experiments on radiation from relativistic electrons in spiral motion. Our results indicate that photons carrying orbital angular momentum should be created naturally by cyclotron/synchrotron radiations or Compton scatterings in various situations in cosmic space. We propose promising laboratory vortex photon sources in various wavelengths ranging from radio wave to gamma-rays.
Isotherms and IR spectra were measured for CO2-MZSM-5 (M = Li +, Na +, K +, Rb +, Cs +) adsorption systems. The observed adsorption characteristics were well approximated by a physical adsorption where the van der Waals force and an electrostatic interaction force are operating: the degree of irreversible adsorption (chemisorption) was less than 10% of the total adsorption. Although the adsorbed CO2 molecule interacts with both the cation and the pore wall, only the CO2-cation interaction can convert the IR inactive u1 vibration into an IR active state. The adsorption model proposed enables us to calculate the initial heat of adsorption as well as the molecular orientation angle of CO2 against the cation site.
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