During angiogenesis, microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) secrete proteinases that permit penetration of the vascular basement membrane as well as the interstitial extracellular matrix. This study tested the hypothesis that cathepsin S (Cat S) contributes to angiogenesis. Treatment of cultured ECs with inflammatory cytokines or angiogenic factors stimulated the expression of Cat S, whereas inhibition of Cat S activity reduced microtubule formation by impairing cell invasion. ECs from Cat S-deficient mice showed reduced collagenolytic activity and impaired invasion of collagens type I and IV. Cat S-deficient mice displayed defective microvessel development during wound repair. This abnormal angiogenesis occurred despite normal vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor levels, implying an essential role for extracellular matrix degradation by Cat S during microvessel formation. These results demonstrate a novel function of endothelium-derived Cat S in angiogenesis.
Despite significant improvements in the primary success rate of the medical and surgical treatments for atherosclerotic disease, including angioplasty, bypass grafting, and endarterectomy, secondary failure due to late restenosis continues to occur in 30-50% of individuals. Restenosis and the later stages in atherosclerotic lesions are due to a complex series of fibroproliferative responses to vascular injury involving potent growth-regulatory molecules (such as platelet-derived growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor) and resulting in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, migration, and neointimal accumulation. We show here, based on experiments with both taxol and deuterium oxide, that microtubules are necessary for VSMCs to undergo the multiple transformations contributing to the development of the neointimal fibroproliferative lesion. Taxol was found to interfere both with platelet-derived growth factor-stimulated VSMC migration and with VSMC migration and with VSMC proliferation, at nanomolar levels in vitro. In vivo, taxol prevented medial VSMC proliferation and the neointimal VSMC accumulation in the rat carotid artery after balloon dilatation and endothelial denudation injury. This effect occurred at plasma levels approximately two orders of magnitude lower than that used clinically to treat human malignancy (peak levels achieved in this model were -50-60 nM). Taxol may therefore be of therapeutic value in preventing human restenosis with minimal toxicity. (J. Clin. Invest. 1995Invest. . 95:1869Invest. -1876
The 26-year-old diagnostic criteria for WS were revised on the basis of the results of a nationwide epidemiological study. The proposed revised criteria will facilitate simpler, faster and more robust diagnosis of WS in the Japanese population.
Background-Although it has been demonstrated that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in the arterial remodeling in atherosclerosis and restenosis, it is not clear which MMP is involved in which process. To define the role of MMP-2 in arterial remodeling, we evaluated the influence of the targeted deletion of the MMP-2 gene on vascular remodeling after flow cessation in the murine carotid arteries. Methods and Results-The left common carotid arteries of wild-type and MMP-2-deficient mice were ligated just proximal to their bifurcations, and the animals were then processed for morphological and biochemical studies at specific time points. MMP-2 activity and mRNA levels increased in ligated carotid arteries of wild-type mice on the basis of observation by gelatin zymography and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. There was significantly less intimal hyperplasia in MMP-2-deficient mice at 2 and 4 weeks after ligation than there in wild-type mice. Arterial explants from the aorta of MMP-2-deficient mice showed that smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration was inhibited in comparison with wild-type mice. The chemoattractant-directed invasion through a reconstituted basement membrane barrier was significantly reduced in cultured SMCs derived from MMP-2-deficient mice, although no difference was observed in SMC migration across the filter or in proliferative response between the control and MMP-2-deficient mice.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.