The current study was designed to optimize the dietary levels of Spirulina platensis in Oreochromis niloticus; this was tested via graded levels. Six isonitrogenous and isocaloric rations containing graded levels of dried spirulina 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 20 g/kg diet were fed separately to six equal groups of O. niloticus fingerlings for 3 months. Growth performance, non-specific immune parameters, tissue reactions and resistance of tilapias post challenge infection with Pseudomonas fluorescens were estimated monthly. There were significant increase in growth performance parameters and survival rates in spirulina-supplemented groups at concentration level of 10 g/kg for 2 months. Significant increases in hematocrit, nitroblue tetrazolium and lysozyme activity were observed in most of the supplemented groups. Bacterial challenge infections resulted in significantly lower mortality rate in all Spirulina groups with remarkable increase in protection of fish received 10 g/kg. In sum, it advisable to incorporate 10 g/kg diet of spirulina for 2 months for maximum growth performance, immunity and disease resistance in O. niloticus.
SUMMARYBisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic oestrogen that is extensively used in a wide range of daily used plastic products. This makes it one of the environmental chemicals that may have impact on human health. Due to its oestrogenic effect, BPA might affect the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate the influence of BPA on the histological structure of the mammary gland of the adult female albino rat and its effect on epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis status, in addition to its possible modulating effect on estrogen receptor expression. Thirty female adult albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were gavaged with 5 mg/kg BPA daily for 8 weeks. The mammary glands were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical stains for Ki-67, activated caspase-3 and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-a). BPA induced an increase in the number and size of the acini and ducts in the mammary gland of treated rats with hyperplasia of their lining epithelial cells. The collagen fibre content was significantly increased in the connective tissue stroma separating the ducts. Immunohistochemical results showed a significant increase in Ki-67 and caspase-3, but a nonsignificant increase in ER-a expression. Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands, so it might be one of the predisposing factors for breast cancer.
p m , which would be expected to " linearize" the differential equation and provide correct values for permeability and skin factor. But if the customary real gas pseudo pressure, m(p) is used, then erroneous values for permeability and skin factor will be calculated. This work was done by simulating pressure-dependent permeability using an exponential form for permeability vs. pressure drop. This is a convenient permeability model which just requires one parameter, γ .
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.