The Hamburg City Health Study (HCHS) is a large, prospective, long-term, population-based cohort study and a unique research platform and network to obtain substantial knowledge about several important risk and prognostic factors in major chronic diseases. A random sample of 45,000 participants between 45 and 74 years of age from the general population of Hamburg, Germany, are taking part in an extensive baseline assessment at one dedicated study center. Participants undergo 13 validated and 5 novel examinations primarily targeting major organ system function and structures including extensive imaging examinations. The protocol includes validate self-reports via questionnaires regarding lifestyle and environmental conditions, dietary habits, physical condition and activity, sexual dysfunction, professional life, psychosocial context and burden, quality of life, digital media use, occupational, medical and family history as well as healthcare utilization. The assessment is completed by genomic and proteomic characterization. Beyond the identification of classical risk factors for major chronic diseases and survivorship, the core intention is to gather valid prevalence and incidence, and to develop complex models predicting health outcomes based on a multitude of examination data, imaging, biomarker, psychosocial and behavioral assessments. Participants at risk for coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, stroke and dementia are invited for a visit to conduct an additional MRI examination of either heart or brain. Endpoint assessment of the overall sample will be completed through repeated follow-up examinations and surveys as well as related individual routine data from involved health and pension insurances. The study is targeting the complex relationship between biologic and psychosocial risk and resilience factors, chronic disease, health care use, survivorship and health as well as favorable and bad prognosis within a unique, large-scale long-term assessment with the perspective of further examinations after 6 years in a representative European metropolitan population.
Aim: To evaluate the antiproliferative and cytotoxic properties of bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), on human retinal pigment epithelium (ARPE19) cells, rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC5), and pig choroidal endothelial cells (CEC). Methods: Monolayer cultures of ARPE19, RGC5, and CEC were used. Bevacizumab (0.008-2.5 mg/ml), diluted in culture medium, was added to cells that were growing on cell culture dishes. Cellular proliferative activity was monitored by 59-bromo-29-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation into cellular DNA and the morphology assessed microscopically. For cytotoxicity assays ARPE19, RGC5, and CEC cells were grown to confluence and then cultured in a serum depleted medium to ensure a static milieu. The MTT test was performed after 1 day. The ''Live/Dead'' viability/cytotoxicity assay was performed and analysed by fluorescence microscopy after 6,12,18,24, 30, 36, and 48 hours of incubation. Expression of VEGF, VEGF receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2) and von Willebrand factor was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Results: No cytotoxicity of bevacizumab on RGC5, CEC, and ARPE19 cells could be observed after 1 day. However, after 2 days at a bevacizumab concentration of 2.5 mg/ml a moderate decrease in ARPE19 cell numbers and cell viability was observed. Bevacizumab caused a dose dependent suppression of DNA synthesis in CEC as a result of a moderate antiproliferative activity (maximum reduction 36.8%). No relevant antiproliferative effect of bevacizumab on RGC5 and ARPE19 cells could be observed when used at a concentration of 0.8 mg/ml or lower. CEC and ARPE 19 cells stained positively for VEGF, VEGFR1, and VEGFR2. More than 95% of the CEC were positive for von Willebrand factor. Conclusions: These experimental findings support the safety of intravitreal bevacizumab when used at the currently applied concentration of about 0.25 mg/ml. Bevacizumab exerts a moderate growth inhibition on CEC when used in concentrations of at least 0.025 mg/ml. However, at higher doses (2.5 mg/ml) bevacizumab may be harmful to the retinal pigment epithelium.
. Purpose: To evaluate the potential use of decellularized porcine corneas (DPCs) as a carrier matrix for cultivating human corneal cells in tissue engineering. Methods: Corneal cells were isolated from human corneoscleral rims. Porcine corneas were decellularized using hypotonic tris buffer, ethylene diamine tetra‐acetic acid (EDTA, 0.1%), aprotinin (10 KIU/ml) and 0.3% sodium dodecyl sulphate. Haematoxylin–eosin (HE) and 4,6‐diamidino‐2‐phenylindole (DAPI) staining were performed to confirm removal of the corneal cells. Quantitative analysis was performed to determine levels of desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) using DNA Purification Kit (Fermentas, St. Leon‐Rot, Germany). Alcian blue staining was carried out to analyse the structure of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Corneal stromal cells were injected into the DPCs; limbal corneal epithelial cells and corneal endothelial cells were seeded onto the anterior and posterior surfaces of the DPCs, respectively. Evaluation was undertaken at days 14 and 30. The phenotypical properties of the cultivated corneal cells were investigated using Immunolocalization of type I collagen, keratocan, lumican, cytokeratin 3 (AE5) and type VIII collagen. Results: Haematoxylin–eosin and DAPI staining showed efficient elimination of porcine corneal cells, whereas alcian blue confirmed gross preservation of the ECM. The quantitative analysis of the DNA content showed a significant reduction (mean before decellularization: 75.45 ± 13.71 ng/mg; mean after decellularization: 9.87 ± 2.04 ng/mg, p < 0.001). All three types of corneal cells were efficiently cultured and expanded on the DPCs. Conclusions: Decellularized porcine corneas might serve as a potential scaffold for tissue engineering of the cornea, possibly providing xenogenic substrate for corneal transplantation.
The presented Z-suture is a simple, rapid and safe knotless technique that facilitates transscleral suture fixation of various intraocular implants in the ciliary sulcus like sutured intraocular lenses, artificial iris prostheses, and iris diaphragms. As the knotless approach reliably avoids suture erosion, external fixation can be performed without any protecting scleral flaps or lamellar grooves. The needle is simply passed through the sulcus, and the emerging polypropylene suture is secured in the sclera using a zigzag shaped intrascleral suture (Zsuture). Each pass starts directly adjacent to the exiting site. Five passes are sufficient to reliably fix the suture resisting even maximum tractive forces. Once this procedure is done, the suture can be cut without any knot. By avoiding suture knots, and hence the necessity for intrascleral flaps, this knotless approach may help to reduce suture-related complications such as scleral atrophy, suture erosion and infections.
Bevacizumab is not toxic to corneal cells of human origin in vitro at doses usually used for treatment of corneal neovascularization, which is 20-fold higher than that used for intravitreal application.
Results indicate that the SRK II formula cannot be recommended for IOL power calculation in highly myopic patients. With optimized constants, the SRK/T, Haigis, Hoffer Q, and Holladay 1 formulas produced small deviation of postoperative refraction from target refraction.
Bevacizumab, pegaptanib and ranibizumab significantly suppress choroidal endothelial cell proliferation. However, when used at the currently established doses none of the drugs was superior over the others in respect to endothelial cell growth inhibition. The biocompatibility of all three drugs--including the off-label bevacizumab--seems to be excellent when used at the currently recommended intravitreal dose.
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