Early oral feeding is the preferred mode of nutrition for surgical patients. Avoidance of any nutritional therapy bears the risk of underfeeding during the postoperative course after major surgery. Considering that malnutrition and underfeeding are risk factors for postoperative complications, early enteral feeding is especially relevant for any surgical patient at nutritional risk, especially for those undergoing upper gastrointestinal surgery. The focus of this guideline is to cover nutritional aspects of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) concept and the special nutritional needs of patients undergoing major surgery, e.g. for cancer, and of those developing severe complications despite best perioperative care. From a metabolic and nutritional point of view, the key aspects of perioperative care include: • integration of nutrition into the overall management of the patient • avoidance of long periods of preoperative fasting • re-establishment of oral feeding as early as possible after surgery • start of nutritional therapy early, as soon as a nutritional risk becomes apparent • metabolic control e.g. of blood glucose • reduction of factors which exacerbate stress-related catabolism or impair gastrointestinal function • minimized time on paralytic agents for ventilator management in the postoperative period • early mobilisation to facilitate protein synthesis and muscle function The guideline presents 37 recommendations for clinical practice.
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), associated with the collapse of massive stars or the collisions of compact objects, are the most luminous events in our universe. However, there is still much to learn about the nature of the relativistic jets launched from the central engines of these objects. We examine how jet structure-that is, the energy and velocity distribution as a function of angle-affects observed GRB afterglow light curves. Using the package afterglowpy, we compute light curves arising from an array of possible jet structures, and present the suite of models that can fit the coincident electromagnetic observations of GW190814 (which is likely due to a background AGN). Our work emphasizes not only the need for broadband spectral and timing data to distinguish among jet structure models, but also the necessity for high resolution radio follow-up to help resolve background sources that may mimic a GRB afterglow.
Background: Transanal dissection of the rectum has been recently introduced for ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) in UC showing promising results. Thanks to the precise identification of the rectotomy site the risk of long rectal stump is avoided, and a single stapled anastomosis is performed easily. The aim of this study is to analyze our initial experience of transanal IPAA (Ta-IPAA), considering postoperative complications and medium-term functional outcomes. Methods: Our Center has experienced the transanal approach for proctectomy and IPAA since October 2018. All patients underwent Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol. Postoperative complications occurring within 30 days after surgery were taken into consideration. Results: Until March 2019, 8 patients underwent Ta-IPAA. In all cases the laparoscopic approach was performed during the transabdominal phase; abdominal drainage was never used. At the time of the pouch construction a defunctioning ileostomy was created in all patients. Stoma closure was performed in all cases at a median time of 6 months after surgery. Postoperative complications occurred in only one patient, who showed rectal bleeding. There were no cases of anastomotic leakage. Medium-term functional outcomes were determined prospectively by a validated questionnaire (Cleveland Global Quality of Life). Fecal incontinence for liquid or solid stool, restriction in work and social genitourinary and sexual functions were also investigated. Conclusions: In our experience, Ta-IPAA provided good short and medium-term functional results in UC. Background Restorative proctocolectomy is widely adopted in the treatment of ulcerative colitis ,, , as well as in other inflammatory and neoplastic conditions, requiring an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) to reconstruct gastrointestinal continuity to the anus. Conventionally, either the laparoscopic or the open approach can be employed to gain rectal dissection and creation of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Pouch-anal anastomosis is usually made using a stapler, leaving a 2 cm rectal cuff in order to preserve continence and to reduce the risk of inflammatory recurrence or dysplasia. The dissection of the last centimeters of the rectum, rectum resection and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis could be demanding from a technical point of view due to narrow pelvic space and cross stapling of the distal part of the rectum is often challenging for surgeons. Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) has been recently described in rectal cancer treatment, with potential technical and oncologic advantages compared to transabdominal approach. The transanal approach for the proctectomy has been described also in IPAA since 2015, showing feasibility and potential technical advantages; some series ,,, and initial comparative studies have been published , , showing a not increased rate of postoperative morbidity, equivalent quality of life and functional results. The aim of our study is to analyze a single centre experience of transanal IPAA (Ta-IPAA), examining e...
On 2019 April 25, the LIGO Livingston detector observed a compact binary coalescence with signal-to-noise ratio 12.9. The Virgo detector was also taking data that did not contribute to detection due to a low signal-to-noise ratio, but were used for subsequent parameter estimation. The 90% credible intervals for the component masses range from
if we restrict the dimensionless component spin magnitudes to be smaller than 0.05). These mass parameters are consistent with the individual binary components being neutron stars. However, both the source-frame chirp mass
and the total mass
of this system are significantly larger than those of any other known binary neutron star (BNS) system. The possibility that one or both binary components of the system are black holes cannot be ruled out from gravitational-wave data. We discuss possible origins of the system based on its inconsistency with the known Galactic BNS population. Under the assumption that the signal was produced by a BNS coalescence, the local rate of neutron star mergers is updated to 250–2810
On May 21, 2019 at 03:02:29 UTC Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo observed a short duration gravitational-wave signal, GW190521, with a three-detector network signal-to-noise ratio of 14.7, and an estimated false-alarm rate of 1 in 4900 yr using a search sensitive to generic transients. If GW190521 is from a quasicircular binary inspiral, then the detected signal is consistent with the merger of two black holes with masses of 85 þ21 −14 M ⊙ and 66 þ17 −18 M ⊙ (90% credible intervals). We infer that the primary black hole mass lies within the gap produced by (pulsational) pair-instability supernova processes, with only a 0.32% probability of being below 65 M ⊙. We calculate the mass of the remnant to be 142 þ28 −16 M ⊙ , which can be considered an intermediate mass black hole (IMBH). The luminosity distance of the source is 5.3 þ2.4 −2.6 Gpc, corresponding to a redshift of 0.82 þ0.28 −0.34. The inferred rate of mergers similar to GW190521 is 0.13 þ0.30 −0.11 Gpc −3 yr −1 .
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