The declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in drastic changes to life worldwide. In Spain, the state of alarm caused the confinement of 47 million inhabitants, affecting every aspect of life. This study analyzes the impact of such confinement on the health of men and women, as well as the effect on the practice of physical activity (PA) of both genders. An ad hoc questionnaire was administered. A total of 1046 people (48.57% men and 51.43% women) with an average age of 40 years (SD ± 13.35) participated in this study. For both genders, there was a significant decrease in quantity and intensity (p = 0.000). There was also an alteration in the type of PA practiced, shifting from cardiorespiratory exercise and muscular fitness to flexibility and neuromotor exercise (especially in women). The most popular way of practicing PA during the confinement was “autonomously” (statistically higher in men (M = 3.58) compared to women (M = 3.18)) and the most frequent format was “virtual” (statistically higher in women (M = 2.81) compared to men (M = 1.94)). Confinement modifies the habits of PA practice, especially in men. Both genders put their health and quality of life at risk by not following the PA guidelines of the health authorities World Health Organization (WHO) and American College of Sports Medicine ACSM). These conclusions highlight the importance of considering gender when designing programs and PA formats for the promotion of physical activity to reduce the existing gender divide.
Technology has been gradually introduced into our society, and the field of education is no exception due to technology’s ability to improve the teaching–learning process. Furthermore, within the area of physical education (PE), its importance has been highlighted by the existence of specific apps for physical activity that can be used inside and outside the classroom to assess physical condition, as well as through the potential that virtual and augmented reality can have in such assessment. Therefore, the main objectives for this study were (1) to perform a bibliometric analysis of the articles published in the Web of Science (WoS) on technology in PE and (2) to analyze the articles published on augmented or virtual reality in PE found through this search. The results show that although studies on technology in PE (461 articles) have begun to consolidate over the last five years (there was a turning point in 2015), with the USA being the most influential country in this area, specific research on the use of augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) is still at a very early stage (22 articles with a small growth in 2017), with Spain being the most influential country; much more research is needed to achieve its consolidation.
The aim of this study was to validate and adapt the academic-resilience scale in the Spanish context. The study involved 2967 university students aged 18–33 (Mean, M = 23.65; Standard Deviation, SD = 2.57) from several universities in Andalusia (Spain). Exploratory and confirmatory factorial analyses revealed adequate adjustment rates for the new version of the scale showing the factorial structure invariant with respect to that generated. Three factors that integrate the scale obtained high correlation, internal consistency, and temporal stability. The Spanish version of the academic-resilience scale was shown to have adequate psychometric properties to measure academic resilience in the Spanish university context.
Physical education (PE), by its own characteristics, is a subject where social communication is especially promoted. However, it is necessary to have tools that evaluate the social behaviour of students during PE classes. For this reason, we propose to validate and adapt the Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior in Sport Scale to the Spanish context of PE classes. The study involved 1081 students aged 12 to 18 (M = 14.83; SD = 1.27). The psychometric properties of the Prosocial Behavior Scale were analyzed through several statistical analyses. The results of the confirmatory factorial analysis and the exploratory factorial analysis supported the internal structure of the questionnaire. In addition, the scale was invariant to gender. Cronbach’s alpha values were higher than 0.70 in the factors and sub-factors, finally showing adequate levels of temporal stability. Taking into account the results achieved in the present study, PE teachers have an effective tool to assess the social and antisocial behaviour of their students’ students during PE classes.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.