Recent results from the Franco-Swiss team of Institute Curie and Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois demonstrate a remarkable sparing of normal tissue after irradiation at ultra-high dose rate (>40 Gy s). The "FLASH" radiotherapy maintains tumour control level, suggesting that ultra-high dose rate can substantially enhance the therapeutic window in radiotherapy. The results have been obtained so far only with 4-6 MeV electrons in lung and brain mouse model. Nevertheless, they have attracted a great attention for the potential clinical applications. Oxygen depletion had been discussed many years ago as a possible mechanism for reduction of the damage after exposure to ultra-high dose rate. However, the mechanism underlying the effect observed in the FLASH radiotherapy remains to be elucidated.
PurposeTo investigate the precise mechanism of recognition and processing of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced complex DNA damage (CDD), where two or more DNA lesions are in close proximity, in cellular DNA which is packaged with histones to form chromatin.Methods and MaterialsHeLa and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (UMSCC74A and UMSCC6) cells were irradiated with high linear energy transfer (LET) α-particles or protons, versus low-LET protons and X rays. At various time points after irradiation, site-specific histone post-translational modifications were analyzed by quantitative Western blotting; DNA damage and repair were measured by different versions of the comet assay; and cell survival was determined using clonogenic assays.ResultsSite-specific histone post-translational modifications after low- and high-LET radiation, particularly proton irradiation, were screened, aiming to identify those responsive to CDD. We demonstrate that histone H2B ubiquitylated on lysine 120 (H2Bub) is specifically induced several hours after irradiation in response to high-LET α-particles and protons but not by low-LET protons or X rays/γ-radiation. This is associated with increased levels of CDD, which contributes to decreased cell survival. We further discovered that modulation of H2Bub is under the control of two E3 ubiquitin ligases, MSL2 and RNF20/RNF40 complex, whose depletion leads to defective processing and further persistence of CDD, and to additional decreased cell survival after irradiation.ConclusionThis study demonstrates that the signaling and repair of CDD, particularly induced by high-LET IR is co-ordinated through the specific induction of H2Bub catalyzed by MSL2 and RNF20/40, a mechanism that contributes significantly to cell survival after irradiation.
Many radiotherapy research centers have recently installed novel research platforms enabling the investigation of the radiation response of tumors and normal tissues in small animal models, possibly in combination with other treatment modalities. Many more research institutes are expected to follow in the coming years. These novel platforms are capable of mimicking human radiotherapy more closely than older technology. To facilitate the optimal use of these novel integrated precision irradiators and various small animal imaging devices, and to maximize the impact of the associated research, the ESTRO committee on coordinating guidelines ACROP (Advisory Committee in Radiation Oncology Practice) has commissioned a report to review the state of the art of the technology used in this new field of research, and to issue recommendations. This report discusses the combination of precision irradiation systems, small animal imaging (CT, MRI, PET, SPECT, bioluminescence) systems, image registration, treatment planning, and data processing. It also provides guidelines for reporting on studies.
Migration of stem cells underpins the physiology of metazoan animals. For tissues to be maintained, stem cells and their progeny must migrate and differentiate in the correct positions. This need is even more acute after tissue damage by wounding or pathogenic infection. Inappropriate migration also underpins metastasis. Despite this, few mechanistic studies address stem cell migration during repair or homeostasis in adult tissues. Here, we present a shielded X-ray irradiation assay that allows us to follow stem cell migration in planarians. We demonstrate the use of this system to study the molecular control of stem cell migration and show that , and EMT transcription factor homologs are necessary for cell migration to wound sites and for the establishment of migratory cell morphology. We also observed that stem cells undergo homeostatic migration to anterior regions that lack local stem cells, in the absence of injury, maintaining tissue homeostasis. This requires the polarity determinant Our work establishes planarians as a suitable model for further in-depth study of the processes controlling stem cell migration .
Ionizing radiation, particular high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, can induce complex DNA damage (CDD) wherein 2 or more DNA lesions are induced in close proximity, which contributes significantly to the cell killing effects. However, knowledge of the enzymes and mechanisms involved in coordinating the recognition and processing of CDD in cellular DNA are currently lacking.
Methods and Materials
A small interfering RNA screen of deubiquitylation enzymes was conducted in HeLa cells irradiated with high-LET α-particles or protons, versus low-LET protons and x-rays, and cell survival was monitored by clonogenic assays. Candidates whose depletion led to decreased cell survival specifically in response to high-LET radiation were validated in both HeLa and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (UMSCC74A) cells, and the association with CDD repair was confirmed using an enzyme modified neutral comet assay.
Depletion of USP6 decreased cell survival specifically after high-LET α-particles and protons, but not low-LET protons or x-rays. USP6 depletion caused cell cycle arrest and a deficiency in CDD repair mediated through instability of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) protein. Increased radiosensitivity of cells to high-LET protons as a consequence of defective CDD repair was furthermore mimicked using the PARP inhibitor olaparib, and through PARP-1 small interfering RNA.
USP6 controls cell survival in response to high-LET radiation by stabilizing PARP-1 protein levels, which is essential for CDD repair. We also describe synergy between CDD induced by high-LET protons and PARP inhibition, or PARP-1 depletion, in effective cancer cell killing.
The conceptual design for a nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator suitable for charged particle therapy (the use of protons and other light ions to treat some forms of cancer) is described.
Dosimeters often consist of several components whose mass densities differ substantially from water. These components cause small-field correction factors to vary significantly as lateral electronic equilibrium breaks down. Even amongst instruments designed for small-field dosimetry, inter-detector variation in the correction factors associated with very small (∼0.5 cm) fields can amount to tens of per cent. For a given dosimeter, small-field correction factors vary not only with field size but also with detector azimuthal angle and position within the field. Furthermore the accurate determination of these factors typically requires time-intensive Monte Carlo simulations. Thus, if achievable, 'correction factor free' small-field dosimetry would be highly desirable. This study demonstrates that a new generation of mass-density compensated detectors could take us towards this goal. Using a 6 MV beam model, it shows that 'mass-density compensation' can be utilized to improve the performance of a range of different detectors under small-field conditions. Non-sensitive material of appropriate mass-density is incorporated into detector designs in order to make the instruments behave as if consisting only of water. The dosimeter perturbative effects are then reduced to those associated with volume averaging. An even better solution-which modifies detectors to obtain profiles that look like those measured by a point-like water structure-is also considered. Provided that adequate sensitivity can be achieved for a small measurement volume, this study shows that it may be possible to use mass-density compensation (and Monte Carlo-driven design) to produce a solid-state dosimeter/ionization chamber with a near-perfect non-equilibrium response.
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