In engineering design, material alternatives evaluate according to different criteria depending on the objectives of the problem. Performance ratings for different criteria are measured by different units, but in the decision matrix in order to have a valid comparison all the elements must be dimensionless. However, a lot of normalization methods have been developed for cost and benefit criteria, not only there has not been enough attention for engineering design situations in which approaching the target values are desirable but also the available methods have shortcomings. A new version of VIKOR method, which covers all types of criteria with emphasize on compromise solution, is proposed in this paper. The proposed comprehensive version of VIKOR also overcomes the main error of traditional VIKOR by a simpler approach. Suggested method can enhance exactness of material selection results in different applications, especially in biomedical application where the implant materials should possess similar properties to those of human tissues. Five examples are included to illustrate and justify the suggested method.
Background Bones in human body are prone to damage due to different causes such as fractures, diseases, and infections. Nevertheless, they have a remarkable capacity to repair and heal themselves after trauma and illness. Large defects, however, are never completely reinstated because their sizes are beyond the limit up to which the bones can repair . In these conditions, therefore, a medical remedy is required to stabilize, align and support the damaged bone region to restore the lost function. Bone autografts are considered the gold standard treatment. However, they have a number of shortcomings including the limited sources and donor site morbidity. Allografts also have the risk of immune rejection and disease transmission [2, 3]. Therefore, the research has headed for other solutions via tissue engineering. Bone tissue engineering provides three-dimensional (3D)
With technology advances, metallic implants claim to improve the quality and durability of human life. In the recent decade, Ti-6Al-4V biomaterial has been additively manufactured via selective laser melting (SLM) for orthopedic applications. This paper aims to provide state-of-the-art on mechanobiology of these fabricated components.
A literature review has been done to explore the potential of SLM fabricated Ti-6Al-4V porous lattice structures (LS) as bone substitutes. The emphasize was on the effect of process parameters and porosity on mechanical and biological properties. The papers published since 2007 were considered here. The keywords used to search were porous Ti-6Al-4V, additive manufacturing, metal three-dimensional printing, osseointegration, porous LS, SLM, in vitro and in vivo.
The properties of SLM porous biomaterials were compared with different human bones, and bulk SLM fabricated Ti-6Al-4V structures. The comparison was also made between LS with different unit cells to find out whether there is any particular design that can mimic the human bone functionality and enhance osseointegration.
The implant porosity plays a crucial role in mechanical and biological characteristics that relies on the optimum controlled process variables and design attributes. It was also indicated that although the mechanical strength (compressive and fatigue) of porous LS is not mostly close to natural cortical bone, elastic modulus can be adjusted to match that of cortical or cancellous bone. Porous Ti-6Al-4V provide favorable bone formation. However, the effect of design variables on biological behavior cannot be fully conclusive as few studies have been dedicated to this.
a b s t r a c tAseptic loosening is one of the main reasons for the revision of a total knee replacement (TKR). The design of the key component of a TKR, the femoral component, is particularly problematic because its failure can be the result of different causes. This makes the development of new biomaterials for use in the femoral component a challenging task. This paper focuses on the engineering design aspects in order to understand the limitations of current materials and design deficiencies. The paper describes the introduction of a new biomaterial for a femoral component and justifies the recommendation to use multi-functional materials as a possible solution to aseptic loosening. The potential advantages of applying functionally graded biomaterials (FGBMs) in prosthetic femur are explained by reducing the leading causes of failure including wear, micro-motion and stress-shielding effect. The ideas presented in this paper can be used as the basis for further research on the feasibility and advantages of applying FGBM in other superior implant designs.
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