CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Non-adherence to treatment is one of the hindering factors in the process of smoking cessation. This study aimed to compare sociodemographic characteristics, smoking status and motivation among smokers who maintained or abandoned treatment to stop smoking, and to analyze associations between sociodemographic factors and smoking. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cohort study on 216 smokers who were attended at healthcare units in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso. METHODS:The instruments used were the Fagerström, URICA and CAGE questionnaires. Data from the initial evaluation was analyzed using the two-proportion test (α < 0.05). The patients were monitored for six months and those who abandoned treatment were accounted for. Bivariate analysis was conducted, using crude prevalence ratios and 5% significance level (P < 0.05), with abandonment of treatment as the outcome variable. Associations with P < 0.20 were selected for multiple robust Poisson regression (RPa). RESULTS:The abandonment rate was 34.26%. Males and individuals in the 20-39 age group, in employment, with low motivation, with shorter time smoking and lower tobacco intake predominated in the dropout group. In the final model, gender (RPa 1.47; 95% CI: 1.03-2.10) and age group (RPa 3.77; 95% CI: 1.47-9.67) remained associated with abandonment. CONCLUSION: Males and individuals in the 20-39 age group, in employment, with low motivation, with shorter time smoking and lower tobacco intake more frequently abandoned the treatment. Male gender and younger age group were associated with abandonment of nicotine dependence treatment. RESUMO
RESUMO (ISSL). Os dados foram digitados duplamente em programa Epidata versão 3.1, e para análise dos dados foi utilizado um modelo de regressão de Poisson. Resultados: Foram encontradas associações do fracasso terapêutico com as seguintes variáveis: faixa etária jovem (RP = 1,68; IC 95% 1,11-2,56); menor tempo de tabagismo (RP = 1,32; IC 95% 1,09-1,61); maior consumo de cigarros/dia (RP = 1,24; IC 95% 1,01-1,52) e menor grau de motivação (RP = 1,55; IC 95% 1,04-2,30). No modelo final (RPa), ficaram associadas ao fracasso as variáveis: menor tempo de tabagismo (RPa 1,53; IC 95% 1,07-2,32), maior carga tabágica (RPa 1,48; IC 95% 1,12-1,95), baixo nível de motivação (RPa 1,58; IC 95% 1,07-2,32) e alto nível de ansiedade (RPa 1,22; IC 95% 1,01-1,48). Conclusão: Baixo nível motivacional (Contemplação e Pré-contemplação), alto nível de ansiedade (moderado/grave), menor tempo de tabagismo e alta carga tabágica estão associados ao fracasso terapêutico.
Objective: To evaluate changes in the levels of patient anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress over the course of smoking cessation treatment. Methods: This cohort study involved patients enrolled in a smoking cessation program in Cuiabá, Brazil. We selected patients who completed the program in six months or less (n = 142). Patient evaluations were conducted at enrollment (evaluation 1 [E1]); after 45 days of treatment with medication and cognitive-behavioral therapy (E2); and at the end of the six-month study period (E3). Patients were evaluated with a standardized questionnaire (to collect sociodemographic data and determine smoking status), as well as with the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults. The data were analyzed with the nonparametric Wilcoxon test for paired comparisons. To compare treatment success (smoking cessation) with treatment failure, the test for two proportions was used. Results: Among the 142 patients evaluated, there were improvements, in terms of the levels of anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress, between E1 and E2, as well as between E1 and E3. In addition, treatment success correlated significantly with the levels of motivation and anxiety throughout the study period, whereas it correlated significantly with the level of depression only at E2 and E3. Conclusions: We conclude that there are in fact changes in the levels of patient anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress over the course of smoking cessation treatment. Those changes appear to be more pronounced in patients in whom the treatment succeeded.
Background: Depression and anxiety are psychiatric disorders that are related to tobacco use and associated with dependence, the process of cessation, lapses and relapses after quitting smoking. Objective: To analyze the association of nicotine dependence with the level of anxiety and depression in patients who are in the process of smoking cessation. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted with patients who sought the smoking cessation program in Cuiabá/MT. All the smokers enrolled from May to August 2012, participated in this study. Four instruments were applied: Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Fagerström test, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory. Following bivariate analysis, using the crude prevalence ratio, with level of significance lower than 5% (p < 0.05), having as variable outcome the nicotine dependence ≥ 5 (Fagerström). The associations with p < 0.20 were selected for robust Multiple Poisson Regression (RP a ). Results: Associations of Fagerström ≥ 5 with the male sex (RP = 1.15 CI 95% 1.03-1.28); number of cigarettes/day (RP = 1,33; CI 95% 1.19-1.48); and moderate/severe level of depression (RP = 1.15; CI 95% 1.04-1.28) were found. In the final model (RPa), the following variables remained associated: male gender (RPa 1.12; CI 95% 1.01-1.24), number of cigarettes/day (RPa 1.28; CI 95% 1.15-1.43) and high level of depression (RPa 1.12; CI 95% 1.01-1.23). Discussion: High level of nicotine dependence was associated significantly with the level of depression, emphasizing the association between smoking and psychiatric comorbidities.
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