The present paper describes the successful onepot synthesis of self-stabilized particles composed of amphiphilic block copolymers based on poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) obtained by polymerization-induced selfassembly. First, controlled radical polymerization of MAA is performed in water using the RAFT process by taking advantage of our recent results showing the successful RAFT polymerization of MAA in water [Chaduc et al. Macromolecules 2012, 45, 1241−1247. The so-formed hydrophilic macro-RAFT agents are then chain-extended in situ with a hydrophobic monomer to form amphiphilic block copolymer chains of controlled molar mass that self-assemble into stable nanoparticles. Various parameters such as the pH, the molar mass and the concentration of the PMAA segments or the nature of the hydrophobic block have been investigated.
Metalloenzymes preorganize the reaction environment to steer substrate(s) along the required reaction coordinate. Here, we show that phosphine ligands selectively facilitate protonation of binuclear silver hydride cations, [LAg2(H)]+ by optimizing the geometry of the active site. This is a key step in the selective, catalysed extrusion of carbon dioxide from formic acid, HO2CH, with important applications (for example, hydrogen storage). Gas-phase ion-molecule reactions, collision-induced dissociation (CID), infrared and ultraviolet action spectroscopy and computational chemistry link structure to reactivity and mechanism. [Ag2(H)]+ and [Ph3PAg2(H)]+ react with formic acid yielding Lewis adducts, while [(Ph3P)2Ag2(H)]+ is unreactive. Using bis(diphenylphosphino)methane (dppm) reshapes the geometry of the binuclear Ag2(H)+ scaffold, triggering reactivity towards formic acid, to produce [dppmAg2(O2CH)]+ and H2. Decarboxylation of [dppmAg2(O2CH)]+ via CID regenerates [dppmAg2(H)]+. These gas-phase insights inspired variable temperature NMR studies that show CO2 and H2 production at 70 °C from solutions containing dppm, AgBF4, NaO2CH and HO2CH.
Allelic polymorphism of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene (ApoE 2, ApoE 3 and ApoE 4 alleles) gives rise to three protein isoforms (ApoE2, ApoE3 and ApoE4) that differ by 1 or 2 amino acids. Inheritance of the ApoE 4 allele is a risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). The potential diagnostic value of ApoE protein levels in biological fluids (i.e. cerebrospinal fluid, plasma and serum) for distinguishing between AD patients and healthy elderly subjects is subject to great controversy. Although a recent study reported subnormal total ApoE and ApoE4 levels in the plasma of AD patients, other studies have found normal or even elevated protein levels (versus controls). Because all previously reported assays were based on immunoenzymatic techniques, we decided to develop an orthogonal assay based on targeted mass spectrometry by tracking (i) a proteotypic peptide common to all ApoE isoforms and (ii) a peptide that is specific for the 4 allele. After trypsin digestion, the ApoE4-specific peptide contains an oxidation-prone methionine residue. The endogenous methionine oxidation level was evaluated in a small cohort (n ؍ 68) of heterozygous 34 carriers containing both healthy controls and AD patients. As expected, the proportion of oxidized residues varied from 0 to 10%, with an average of 5%. We therefore developed a standardized strategy for the unbiased, absolute quantification of ApoE4, based on performic acid oxidization of methionine. Once the sample workflow had been thoroughly validated, it was applied to the concomitant quantification of total ApoE and ApoE4 isoform in a large casecontrol study (n ؍ 669). The final measurements were consistent with most previously reported ApoE concentration values and confirm the influence of the different alleles on the protein expression level. Our results illustrate (i) the reliability of selected reaction monitoringbased assays and (ii) the value of the oxidization step for unbiased monitoring of methionine-containing proteotypic peptides. Furthermore, a statistical analysis indicated that neither total ApoE and ApoE4 levels nor the ApoE/ApoE4 ratio correlated with the diagnosis of AD. These findings reinforce the conclusions of previous studies in which plasma ApoE levels had no obvious clinical significance. Molecular & Cellular
For the first time, the electrospray ionization efficiency (IE) scales in positive and negative mode are united into a single system enabling direct comparison of IE values across ionization modes. This is made possible by the use of a reference compound that ionizes to a similar extent in both positive and negative modes. Thus, choosing the optimal (i.e., most sensitive) ionization conditions for a given set of analytes is enabled. Ionization efficiencies of 33 compounds ionizing in both modes demonstrate that, contrary to general practice, negative mode allows better sensitivity for 46% of such compounds whereas the positive mode is preferred for only 18%, and for 36%, the results for both modes are comparable.
Electrospray (ESI) ionization efficiencies (IE) of a set of 10 compounds differing by chemical nature, extent of ionization in solution (basicity), and by hydrophobicity (tetrapropylammonium and tetraethylammonium ion, triethylamine, 1-naphthylamine, N,N-dimethylaniline, diphenylphthalate, dimethylphtahalate, piperidine, pyrrolidine, pyridine) have been measured in seven mobile phases (three acetonitrile percentages 20%, 50%, and 80%, and three different pH-adjusting additives, 0.1% formic acid, 1 mM ammonia, pH 5.0 buffer combination) using the relative measurement method. MS parameters were optimized separately for each ion. The resulting relative IE data were converted into comparable logIE values by anchoring them to the logIE of tetrapropylammonium ion taking into account the differences of ionization in different solvents and thereby making the logIE values of the compounds comparable across solvents. The following conclusions were made from analysis of the data. The compounds with pK(a) values in the range of the solution pH values displayed higher IE at lower pH. The sensitivity of IE towards pH depends on hydrophobicity being very strong with pyridine, weaker with N,N-dimethylaniline, and weakest with 1-naphthylamine. IEs of tetraalkylammonium ions and triethylamine were expectedly insensitive towards solution pH. Surprisingly high IEs of phthalate esters were observed. The differences in solutions with different acetonitrile content and similar pH were smaller compared with the pH effects. These results highlight the importance of hydrophobicity in electrospray and demonstrate that high hydrophobicity can sometimes successfully compensate for low basicity.
Electrospray© ionization© tandem© mass© spectrometry© has© been© used© to© characterize© the© microstructure© of© a© nitroxide-mediated© poly(ethylene© oxide)/polystyrene© block© copolymer,© called SG1-capped© PEO-b-PS.© The© main© dissociation© route© of© co-oligomers© adducted© with© lithium© or silver© cation© was© observed© to© proceed© via© the© homolytic© cleavage© of© a© C-ON© bond,© aimed© at undergoing©reversible©homolysis©during©nitroxide©mediated©polymerization.©This©cleavage results© in© the© elimination© of© the© terminal© SG1© end-group© as© a© radical,© inducing© a© complete depolymerization© process© of© the© PS© block© from© the© so-formed© radical© cation.© These© successive eliminations© of© styrene© molecules© allowed© a© straightforward© determination© of© the© PS© block size.©An©alternative©fragmentation©pathway©of©the©radical©cation©was©shown©to©provide structural© information© on© the© junction© group© between© the© two© blocks.© Proposed© dissociation mechanisms© were© supported© by© accurate© mass© measurements.© Structural© information© on© the SG1© end-group© could© be© reached© from© weak© abundance© fragment© ions© detected© in© the© low© m/z range© of© the© MS/MS© spectrum.© Amongst© fragments© typically© expected© from© PS© dissociation, only© ␤© ions© were© produced.© Moreover,© specific© dissociation© of© the© PEO© block© was© not© observed to© occur© in© MS/MS,© suggesting© that© these© rearrangement© reactions© do© not© compete© effectively with© dissociations© of© the© odd-electron© fragment© ions.© Information© about© the© PEO© block© length and© the© initiated© end-group© were© obtained© in© MS 3© experiments
Abstract. UV photodissociation of proline-containing peptide ions leads to unusual product ions. In this paper, we report laser-induced dissociation of a series of prolinecontaining peptides at 213 nm. We observe specific fragmentation pathways corresponding to the formation of (y-2), (a + 2) and (b + 2) fragment ions. This was not observed at 266 nm or for peptides which do not contain proline residues. In order to obtain insights into the fragmentation dynamics at 213 nm, a small peptide (RPK for arginine-proline-lysine) was studied both theoretically and experimentally. Calculations of absorption spectra and non-adiabatic molecular dynamics (MD) were made. Second and third excited singlet states, S 2 and S 3 , lie close to 213 nm. Non-adiabatic MD simulation starting from S 2 and S 3 shows that these transitions are followed by C-C and C-N bond activation close to the proline residue. After this first relaxation step, consecutive rearrangements and proton transfers are required to produce unusual (y-2), (a + 2) and (b + 2) fragment ions. These fragmentation mechanisms were confirmed by H/D exchange experiments.
Targeted mass spectrometry using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) has emerged as an alternative to immunoassays for protein quantification owing to faster development time and higher multiplexing capability. However, the SRM strategy is faced with the high complexity of peptide mixtures after trypsin digestion of whole plasma or the cellular proteome that most of the time causes contamination, irremediably, by interfering compounds in the transition channels monitored. This problem becomes increasingly acute when the targeted protein is present at a low concentration. In this work, the merit of laser-induced photo-dissociation in the visible region at 473 nm implemented in an hybrid quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometer (photo-SRM) was evaluated for detection specificity of cysteine-containing peptides in a group of plasma proteins after tagging with a dabcyl chromophore. Compared with conventional SRM, photo-SRM chromatograms have improved detection specificity for most of peptides monitored. Comparison of the signals obtained for the best proteotypic peptides in SRM mode and those recorded by photo-SRM of cysteine-containing peptides for the same proteins reveals either increased (up to 10-fold) or similar signal to photo-SRM detection. Finally, photo-SRM has extended response linearity across a calibration plot obtained by diluting human plasma in rat plasma, down to the lowest concentrations. Hence, photo-SRM may advantageously complement conventional SRM in assay of proteins in complex biological matrices.
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