Mortality from collision with vehicles is the most visible impact of road traffic on wildlife. Mortality due to roads (hereafter road-kill) can affect the dynamic of populations of many species and can, therefore, increase the risk of local decline or extinction. This is especially true in Brazil, where plans for road network upgrading and expansion overlaps biodiversity hotspot areas, which are of high importance for global conservation. Researchers, conservationists and road planners face the challenge to define a national strategy for road mitigation and wildlife conservation. The main goal of this dataset is a compilation of geo-referenced road-kill data from published and unpublished road surveys. This is the first Data Paper in the BRAZIL series (see ATLANTIC, NEOTROPICAL, and BRAZIL collections of Data Papers published in Ecology), which aims make public road-kill data for species in the Brazilian Regions. The dataset encompasses road-kill records from 45 personal communications and 26 studies published in peer-reviewed journals, theses and reports. The road-kill dataset comprises 21,512 records, 83% of which are identified to the species level (n = 450 species). The dataset includes records of 31 amphibian species, 90 reptile species, 229 bird species, and 99 mammal species. One species is classified as Endangered, eight as Vulnerable and twelve as Near Threatened. The species with the highest number of records are: Didelphis albiventris (n = 1,549), Volatinia jacarina (n = 1,238), Cerdocyon thous (n = 1,135), Helicops infrataeniatus (n = 802), and Rhinella icterica (n = 692). Most of the records came from southern Brazil. However, observations of the road-kill incidence for non-Least Concern species are more spread across the country. This dataset can be used to identify which taxa seems to be vulnerable to traffic, analyze temporal and spatial patterns of road-kill at local, regional and national scales and also used to understand the effects of road-kill on population persistence. It may also contribute to studies that aims to understand the influence of landscape and environmental influences on road-kills, improve our knowledge on road-related strategies on biodiversity conservation and be used as complementary information on large-scale and macroecological studies. No copyright or proprietary restrictions are associated with the use of this data set other than citation of this Data Paper.
Anaplasmataceae agents are obligatory intracellular Gram-negative α-proteobacteria that are transmitted mostly by arthropod vectors. Although mammals of the Superorder Xenarthra (sloths, anteaters, and armadillos) have been implicated as reservoirs for several zoonotic agents, only few studies have sought to detect Anaplasmataceae agents in this group of mammals. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and genetic diversity of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in blood and spleen samples of free-living Xenarthra from four different states in Brazil (São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondônia, and Pará). Nested and conventional PCR screening assays were performed to detect the rrs and dsb genes of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp., respectively. The assays were positive in 27.57% (91/330) of the Anaplasma spp. and 24.54% (81/330) of the Ehrlichia spp. Of the 91 positive Anaplasma spp. samples, 56.04% were positive in a conventional PCR assay targeting the 23S–5S intergenic region. Phylogenetic and distance analyses based on the rrs gene allocated Anaplasma sequences from sloths captured in Rondônia and Pará states in a single clade, which was closely related to the A. marginale , A. ovis, and A. capra clades. The sequences detected in southern anteaters from São Paulo were allocated in a clade closely related to sequences of Anaplasma spp. detected in Nasua nasua , Leopardus pardalis , and Cerdocyon thous in Brazil. These sequences were positioned close to A. odocoilei sequences. Genotype analysis corroborated previous findings and demonstrated the circulation of two distinct Anaplasma genotypes in animals from north and southeast Brazil. The first genotype was new. The second was previously detected in N. nasua in Mato Grosso do Sul state. The intergenic region analyses also demonstrated two distinct genotypes of Anaplasma . The sequences detected in Xenarthra from Pará and Rondônia states were closely related to those in A. marginale , A. ovis, and A. capra . Anaplasma spp. sequences detected in Xenarthra from São Paulo and were allocated close to those in A. phagocytophilum . The analyses based on the dsb gene grouped the Ehrlichia spp. sequences with sequences of E. canis (São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Pará) and E. minasensis (Rondônia and Pará). The data indicate the occurrence of E....
This report presents a description of natural infection of an adult free-living guira cuckoo with Paratanaisia confusa. Histological and morphological evaluations of renal and parasite samples were performed. The morphological analysis of the parasites revealed spiny tegument, characteristic of P. confusa helminthes. Although macroscopic alterations were absent in the kidneys, the histopathology revealed parasites inside the collecting ducts causing dilatation and destruction of the lining epithelial cells in addition to small focal inflammatory infiltrates in the renal parenchyma. However, as the bird was free-living and naturally infected it was not possible to confirm if all these alterations were directly caused by the parasite presence or if they were related to causes other than the parasitism. Nonetheless, such findings indicate that these trematodes may have pathogenic potential in this host.Keywords: Histopathology, Trematoda, Digenea, Eucotylidae, new host record. ResumoA infecção de um anu-branco, de vida livre, por Paratanaisia confusa é descrita. Avaliações histológicas e morfológicas de amostras renais e dos parasitas foram realizadas. A análise morfológica dos parasitas revelou a presença de tegumento espinhoso, que é característico de P. confusa. Embora alterações renais macroscópicas estivessem ausentes, a histopatologia revelou a presença de parasitas no interior de ductos coletores, provocando dilatação destes e destruição das células epiteliais, além de discretos infiltrados inflamatórios focais no parênquima renal. Entretanto, como a ave era proveniente de vida livre e naturalmente infectada, não foi possível confirmar se todas as alterações observadas foram diretamente provocadas pela presença dos parasitas, ou se estavam relacionadas a outras causas. Todavia, esses achados indicam que os trematódeos dessa espécie possam ter potencial patogênico no hospedeiro estudado.Palavras-chave: Histopatologia, Trematoda, Digenea, Eucotylidae, novo registro de hospedeiro.
The superorder Xenarthra consists of sloths, anteaters and armadillos, mammals originated from South America and currently distributed from the south of North America to the south of South America. The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence and genetic diversity of Bartonella spp. in blood and spleen samples from free‐living Xenarthra mammals in the states of São Paulo (SP), Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Rondônia (RO) and Pará (PA). Based on a quantitative real‐time PCR (qPCR) assay, a Bartonella spp. nuoG gene fragment was detected in 1.51% (5/330) of the samples: 4 six‐banded armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) sampled in the MS and 1 southern tamandua (Tamandua tetradactyla) sampled in the PA. Eight sequences (5 ftsZ, 2 gltA and 1 rpoB) were obtained in the conventional PCR assays. In both phylogenetic analyses based on Bayesian and distance (SplitsTree) methods, the obtained ftsZ, gltA and rpoB sequences were positioned in a distinct clade, but related to B. washoensis. The analysis of SplitsTree and genotype networks based on B. washoensis sequences from several hosts from various localities of the world showed that the sequences of the present study were allocated in a group separated from the other sequences, indicating that they probably originated from median vectors and large numbers of mutational events. Additionally, the analyses performed by BLAST showed low percentages of identities of the sequences obtained in the present study when compared to those previously deposited in GenBank. Therefore, we propose a new Candidatus to Bartonella occurring in Xenarthra in Brazil. The present study was the first to report the occurrence of Bartonella sp. in mammals of the superorder Xenarthra in the world, and it was the first to describe a new Candidatus related to B. washoensis in Brazil.
Digenetic eucotylids of the Paratanaisia genus are widely reported parasites of the avian renal system. The infection, commonly reported in free-living and zoo-housed birds, is described for the first time in a domiciled bird, a cockatiel kept as pet bird with free access to the yard outdoors. The bird was received at Veterinary Hospital, where clinical and radiographic evaluations suggested a case of heavy-metal poisoning. Although the bird received supportive care and a chelating agent, it died the next day. The necropsy showed friable kidneys and congestion of blood vessels in structures such as the skin, proventriculus, brain, and skullcap. The histopathological evaluation of the kidneys revealed multifocal hemorrhages, commonly found in cases of heavy-metal poisoning. Parasitic structures similar to those of the digenean trematodes Paratanaisia spp. were also observed inside dilated collecting ducts, which presented epithelial cell flattening and vacuolization. There was compression of adjacent tissue and discrete fibrotic areas. In the presence of intermediate hosts in the yard, the synanthropic nature of some wild free-living birds could make them a source of trematodes infection and dissemination for pet birds. Conversely, the infected cockatiel could also have served as a reservoir and carrier of trematodes to wild free-living birds.
As the second-largest Neotropical carnivore, cougars (Puma concolor) are especially important for maintenance of the biodiversity and ecosystem health. Five wild adult cougars (Puma concolor), found roadkilled in highways in the Northeastern region of São Paulo, were evaluated in search for parasites. Ten species representing nine families were identified. The most prevalent helminths were Uncinaria bidens, Lagochilascaris major, Spirometra sp., and Oncicola canis, followed by Cylicospirura subaequalis, Toxascaris leonina, Taenia omissa, Echinococcus sp., Filaroides sp. and Oncicola oncicola. It is important to note that some helminths found in this study, such as L. major, Spirometra sp., O. oncicola, O. canis, Echinococcus sp., T. leonina, C. subaequalis, and Filaroides sp. are known to affect domestic carnivores, which may indicate interaction between wild and domestic hosts. This study represents a new host record for four of the species found in cougars, U. bidens, L. major, O. canis, and Filaroides sp., and new locality records for U. bidens, T. leonina, C. subaequalis, and Filaroides sp.
Paratanaisia are eucotylidae digeneans that affect the upper urinary tract of birds. This genus contains three species (Paratanaisia bragai, P. robusta, and P. confusa) with similar morphological features. Macroscopic and microscopic damage caused by these parasites ranges from the irrelevant to significant lesions. This study aimed to describe the histological, morphological, and molecular features of the renal tissues and parasite specimens obtained from naturally infected free-ranging and captive wild birds in Brazil. Histopathological evaluations were performed on 103 slides containing kidney tissue sections from parasitized birds. Parasites were observed inside the collecting ducts, causing the dilation and destruction of the lining epithelial cells and alterations in other structures of the renal parenchyma. Such findings indicate that Paratanaisia have pathogenic potential in a wide range of hosts, suggesting low host specificity. The parasites recovered from the kidneys of 10 birds, including Columbiformes, Galliformes, Strigiformes, and Cuculiformes, were morphologically evaluated and identified as Paratanaisia sp. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded kidney fragments were subjected to conventional PCR assays targeting the 18S and 28S rDNA genes. A Bayesian inference analysis based on an 800-bp 18S rDNA gene fragment separated the trematode genus accurately, clustering all of the parasites tested with a previously described P. bragai specimen. Analyses on a small fragment of the 28S rDNA gene did not allow for accurately differentiating the Paratanaisia species. Therefore, further morphological studies with additional molecular markers are necessary to improve our understanding of the alpha-taxonomy of this group.
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