Tooth decay is a major public health problem which affects a large number of people in several countries. Even though more than 700 bacterial species have been detected in the oral cavity, Streptococcus and Lactobacillus stand out as the genera that cause tooth decay and other periodontal diseases. In this study, essential oils from Citrus aurantifolia leaves (CL-EO) and fruit peel (CP-EO) were obtained by hydrodistillation by a Clevenger-type apparatus whereas their chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Limonene (77.5 %), linalool (20.1 %), citronellal (14.5 %) and citronellol (14.2 %) were the main constituents found in the essential oils from C. aurantifolia leaves and fruit peel. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was evaluated in terms of its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values by the broth microdilution method in 96-well microplates. Both CL-EO and CP-EO displayed some activity against all oral pathogens under investigation; MIC values ranged from 20 to 200 µg/mL. CL-EO and CP-EO not only had promising activity against Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 20 µg/mL) and Lactobacillus casei (31.25 µg/mL), but also displayed antibacterial activity against all studied cariogenic bacteria. Efficacy of essential oils against S. mutans and L. casei is noteworthy and should be further investigated.
Published reports have strong limitations and are highly heterogeneous, hindering the evidence to support the use of skin ultrasound in clinical practice. Further studies, with modern devices and appropriate methodology, are needed to establish the real value of skin ultrasound assessment in the early diagnosis and monitoring of SSc patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Invalidation occurs in all rheumatic diseases and patients with FM experience the most invalidation. Psychological factors (happiness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), loneliness, and pain intensity are associated with invalidation, irrespective of the rheumatic disease and may deserve dedicated interventions.
ObjectiveTo investigate the ex vivo pro-inflammatory properties of classical and non-classical monocytes as well as myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients.MethodsSpontaneous production of CXCL10, CCL4, CXCL8 and IL-6 was intracellularly evaluated in classical, non-classical monocytes and Siglec-3-expressing mDCs from peripheral blood of SSc patients and healthy controls (HC) through flow cytometry. In addition, production of these cytokines was determined upon toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 plus Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) stimulation.ResultsThe frequency of non-classical monocytes spontaneously producing CXCL10 was increased in both limited (lcSSc) and diffuse cutaneous (dcSSC) subsets of SSc patients and CCL4 was augmented in dcSSc patients. The proportion of CCL4-producing mDCs was also elevated in dcSSc patients and the percentage of mDCS producing CXCL10 only in lcSSc patients. Upon stimulation, the frequency of non-classical monocytes expressing CXCL8 was increased in both patient groups and mDCs expressing CXCL8 only in lcSSc. Moreover, these parameters in unsupervised clustering analysis identify a subset of patients which are characterized by lung fibrosis and reduced pulmonary function.ConclusionsThese data point towards a role of activated non-classical monocytes and mDCs producing enhanced levels of proinflammatory cytokines in SSc, potentially contributing to lung fibrosis.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1007/s00011-017-1106-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The oral cavity, which harbors more than 750 bacterial species, is one of the most diverse sites of the human body. Some of these bacteria have been associated with oral diseases, such as dental caries and endodontic infections. We report on the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Copaifera oblongifolia oleoresin against bacteria that cause caries and endodontic infections. The aim of this study is to determine the minimum (MIC) and the bactericidal (MBC) inhibitory concentrations as well as the biofilm inhibition ability (through determination of MBIC50) of the C. oblongifolia oleoresin. This study also investigated the bactericidal kinetics (time-kill curves) and the synergistic effect of the C. oblongifolia oleoresin. Additionally, this study evaluated the cytotoxic activity of the oleoresin toward V79 cells by means of the colony-forming assay. The C. oblongifolia oleoresin gave promising MIC and MBC values, which ranged from 25 to 200 μg/mL. Analysis of the MBIC50values of the oleoresin revealed it displayed biofilm inhibitory activity against all the assayed bacteria. Analysis of the bactericidal kinetics showed different behaviors of the oleoresin against the tested bacteria at the different time intervals and concentrations assayed in this study. An additive effect of the oleoresin with chlorhexidine dihydrochloride occurred only for S. mitis and A. actinomycetemcomitans. The C. oblongifolia oleoresin showed cytotoxic activity at concentrations ≥ 625 μg/mL.
While the present findings demonstrate the anti-inflammatory role of IL-4 in preventing the expression of IL-8 by Ac, the regulation of chemokines by anti-inflammatory cytokines is complex and depends on the cellular lineage.
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