Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remain as one of the most global problematic metabolic diseases with rapidly increasing prevalence and incidence. Epidemiological studies noted that T2DM patients have by two-fold increase to develop NAFLD, and vice versa. This complex and intricate association is supported and mediated by insulin resistance (IR). In this review, we discuss the NAFLD immunopathogenesis, connection with IR and T2DM, the role of screening and noninvasive tools, and mostly the impact of the current antidiabetic drugs on steatosis liver and new potential therapeutic targets.
The Mediterranean diet originates in the food cultures of ancient civilizations which developed around the Mediterranean Basin and is based on the regular consumption of olive oil (as the main source of added fat), plant foods (cereals, fruits, vegetables, legumes, tree nuts, and seeds), the moderate consumption of fish, seafood, and dairy, and low-to-moderate alcohol (mostly red wine) intake, balanced by a comparatively limited use of red meat and other meat products. A few decades ago, the Mediterranean diet drew the attention of medical professionals by proving extended health benefits. The first reports ascertained cardiovascular protection, as multiple large-scale clinical studies, starting with Ancel Keys’ Seven Countries Study, showed a marked reduction of atherosclerotic clinical events in populations with a Mediterranean dietary pattern. Ensuing trials confirmed favorable influences on the risk for metabolic syndrome, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. While its health benefits are universally recognized today by medical professionals, the present state of the Mediterranean diet is challenged by major difficulties in implementing this protective dietary pattern in other geographical and cultural areas and keeping it alive in traditional Mediterranean territories, also tainted by the unhealthy eating habits brought by worldwide acculturation.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers to a group of chronic inflammatory diseases that targets mainly the gastrointestinal tract. The clinical presentation of IBD includes both gastrointestinal manifestations and extraintestinal manifestations (EIM). The reported cardiovascular manifestations in IBD patients include pericarditis, myocarditis, venous and arterial thromboembolism, arrhythmias, atrioventricular block, heart failure, endocarditis, valvulopathies, and Takayasu arteritis. The aim of this article is to review the available literature about the possible pathogenic mechanisms and determine preventive measures capable of reducing the incidence and severity of the cardiovascular manifestations. In IBD patients, the incidence of cardiovascular manifestations is low, but higher than that in the general population. Therefore, clinicians should pay attention to any new modification that might indicate cardiovascular involvement in IBD patients, and they should consider chronic inflammatory diseases in patients with cardiac conditions without an evident cause. Considering the role of inflammation in the development of cardiovascular manifestations, the management should include prevention of flares and maintenance of remission for as long as possible. Preventive measures should also include active screening and strict control of the cardiovascular risk factors in all IBD patients.
Hypertension as a multifactorial pathology is one of the most important cardiovascular risk factors, affecting up to 30-40% of the general population. Complex immune responses are involved in the inflammatory mechanism of hypertension, with evidence pointing to increased inflammatory mediators even in prehypertensive patients. Increased vascular permeability, thrombogenesis, and fibrosis, effects that are associated with sustained hypertension, could be attributed to chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation triggers endothelial dysfunction via increased production of ROS through proinflammatory cytokines. Increased serum level of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, IL-23, TGFβ, and TNFα in hypertensive patients has been associated with either increased blood pressure values and/or end-organ damage. Moreover, some cytokines (i.e., IL-6) seem to determine a hypertensive response to angiotensin II, regardless of blood pressure values. Understanding hypertension as an inflammatory-based pathology gives way to new therapeutic targets. As such, conventional cardiovascular drugs (statins, calcium channels blockers, and ACEIs/ARBs) have shown additional anti-inflammatory effects that could be linked to their blood pressure lowering properties. Moreover, anti-inflammatory drugs (mycophenolate mofetil) have been shown to decrease blood pressure in hypertensive patients or prevent its development in normotensive individuals. Further research is needed to evaluate whether drugs targeting hypertensive-linked proinflammatory cytokines, such as monoclonal antibodies, could become a new therapeutic option in treating arterial hypertension.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains one of the most problematic and economic consumer disorders worldwide, with growing prevalence and incidence. Over the last years, substantial research has highlighted the intricate relationship among gut microbiota, dysbiosis and metabolic syndromes development. Changes in the gut microbiome composition lead to an imbalanced gastrointestinal habitat which promotes abnormal production of metabolites, inflammatory status, glucose metabolism alteration and even insulin resistance (IR). Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), lipopolysaccharide, aromatic amino acids and their affiliated metabolites, contribute to T2DM via different metabolic and immunologic pathways. In this narrative review, we discuss the immunopathogenic mechanism behind gut dysbiosis, T2DM development and the major known diabetic microvascular complications (retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy), the beneficial use of pre- and pro-biotics and fecal microbiota transplantation in T2DM management and new findings and future perspectives in this field.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) following platinum-based chemotherapeutics is a frequently reported serious side-effect. However, there are no approved biomarkers that can properly identify proximal tubular injury while routine assessments such as serum creatinine lack sensitivity. Kidney-injury-molecule 1 (KIM-1) is showing promise in identifying cisplatin-induced renal injury both in vitro and in vivo studies. In this review, we focus on describing the mechanisms of renal tubular cells cisplatin-induced apoptosis, the associated inflammatory response and oxidative stress and the role of KIM-1 as a possible biomarker used to predict cisplatin associated AKI.
Anemia associated with heart failure is a frequent condition, which may lead to heart function deterioration by the activation of neuro-hormonal mechanisms. Therefore, a vicious circle is present in the relationship of heart failure and anemia. The consequence is reflected upon the patients’ survival, quality of life, and hospital readmissions. Anemia and iron deficiency should be correctly diagnosed and treated in patients with heart failure. The etiology is multifactorial but certainly not fully understood. There is data suggesting that the following factors can cause anemia alone or in combination: iron deficiency, inflammation, erythropoietin levels, prescribed medication, hemodilution, and medullar dysfunction. There is data suggesting the association among iron deficiency, inflammation, erythropoietin levels, prescribed medication, hemodilution, and medullar dysfunction. The main pathophysiologic mechanisms, with the strongest evidence-based medicine data, are iron deficiency and inflammation. In clinical practice, the etiology of anemia needs thorough evaluation for determining the best possible therapeutic course. In this context, we must correctly treat the patients’ diseases; according with the current guidelines we have now only one intravenous iron drug. This paper is focused on data about anemia in heart failure, from prevalence to optimal treatment, controversies, and challenges.
The prevalence of diabetes is steadily rising, and once it occurs, it can cause multiple complications with a negative impact on the whole organism. Complications of diabetes may be macrovascular: such as stroke and ischemic heart disease as well as peripheral vascular and microvascular diseases—retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Key factors that cause cardiovascular disease in people with diabetes include hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, hypertension, autonomic dysfunction, and decreased vascular response capacity. Microbes can be considered a complex endocrine system capable of ensuring the proper functioning of the body but are also responsible for the development of numerous pathologies (diabetes, coronary syndromes, peripheral arterial disease, neoplasia, Alzheimer's disease, and hepatic steatosis). Changes in the intestinal microbiota may influence the host's sensitivity to insulin, body weight, and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Dysbiosis causes activation of proinflammatory mechanisms, metabolic toxicity, and insulin resistance. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a microbial organic compound generated by the large intestine, and its concentration increases in the blood after ingestion of foods rich in L-carnitine and choline, such as red meat, eggs, and fish. The interest for TMAO in cardiometabolic research has recently emerged, given the preclinical evidence that reveals a link between TMAO, diabetes, and cardiovascular complications. Intestinal microbiota can be modulated by changing one's lifestyle but also by antibiotic, probiotic, prebiotic, and fecal transplantation. The purpose of this article is to highlight issues related to the involvement of microbiota and trimethylamine N-oxide in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Better appreciation of the interactions between food intake and intestinal floral-mediated metabolism can provide clinical insights into the definition of individuals with diabetic risk and cardiometabolic disease as well as potential therapeutic targets for reducing the risk of progression of the disease.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers