IntroductionWe describe temporal trends in the mortality rates and factors associated with AIDS and non-AIDS related mortality at the Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute (IPEC), Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ).MethodsAdult patients enrolling from 1986 through 2009 with a minimum follow up of 60 days were included. Vital status was exhaustively checked using patients’ medical charts, through active contact with individuals and family members and by linkage with the Rio de Janeiro Mortality database using a previously validated algorithm. The CoDe protocol was used to establish the cause of death. Extended Cox proportional hazards models were used for multivariate modeling.ResultsA total of 3530 individuals met the inclusion criteria, out of which 868 (24.6%) deceased; median follow up per patient was 3.9 years (interquartile range 1.7–9.2 years). The dramatic decrease in the overall mortality rates was driven by AIDS-related causes that decreased from 9.19 deaths/100PYs n 1986–1991 to 1.35/100PYs in 2007–2009. Non-AIDS related mortality rates remained stable overtime, at around 1 death/100PYs. Immunodeficiency significantly increased the hazard of both AIDS-related and non-AIDS-related causes of death, while HAART use was strongly associated with a lower hazard of death from either cause.ConclusionsOur results confirm the remarkable decrease in AIDS-related mortality as the HIV epidemic evolved and alerts to the conditions not traditionally related to HIV/AIDS which are now becoming more frequent, needing careful monitoring.
BackgroundSexually transmitted diseases (STD) are frequently asymptomatic and increase the likelihood of transmitting and acquiring HIV. In Brazil, the guidelines for STDs diagnosis and treatment are based on the syndromic approach. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) has been recommended as routine STDs screening in some countries, especially for men who have sex with men (MSM). Limited data are available about how to best define target groups for routine screening by NAATs within this population. We aimed to assess the prevalence of rectal and urethral Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections and syphilis, and the factors associated with having at least one STD among HIV-infected and uninfected MSM in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.MethodsFrom August 2010 to June 2012, 391 MSM were enrolled into the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases-INI-Fiocruz cohort, and 292 MSM (HIV-infected:211 and HIV-uninfected:81) were included in this study. NAATs were performed on the rectal swabs and urine for CT and NG. The rapid plasma reagin test and microhemagglutination assay for Treponema pallidum were performed for syphilis diagnosis.ResultsThe overall prevalence of STD was 20.0 % (95%CI:15.7-25.1): 10 % anorectal chlamydia; syphilis 9.9 %; anorectal gonorrheae 2.5 %; and urethral chlamydia 2.2 %; no case of urethral gonorrheae was detected. The proportion of HIV-positive MSM who had at least one STD was nearly two times that of HIV-negative MSM (22.6 % vs 13.2 %; P = 0.09). The frequency of each STD, except for anorectal NG (1.5 % vs.5.2 %), was higher among HIV-positive than HIV-negative individuals. Among the 211 asymptomatic participants, 17.5 % (n = 37) were identified as having at least one STD; 10.4 % (n = 22/211) tested positive for anorectal chlamydia. Sixty five percent of HIV-positive MSM were asymptomatic at the time of the STD diagnosis, while 100.0 % of the HIV-negative MSM. Age (APR = 0.78; 95%CI:0.60-1.00 for each additional ten years) and a positive-HIV serostatus (APR = 2.05; 95%CI:1.03-4.08) were significantly associated with STD diagnosis.ConclusionAn overall high STD-prevalence rate was observed, especially among HIV-infected and in younger individuals, and the majority of STDs were asymptomatic. STD screening using NAATs among asymptomatic MSM is a potentially cost-effective intervention for the prevention of HIV infection among MSM.
BackgroundMany countries are facing concentrated HIV epidemics among vulnerable populations, including men who have sex with men (MSM). Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) is the main HIV transmission route among them and its understanding in the different cultures and how it relates to HIV transmission, re-infection and development of HIV antiretroviral resistance has important public health implications. Data on UAI among Brazilian MSM are scarce. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of UAI among HIV-infected MSM who had sex with seronegative or male partners with an unknown serostatus.MethodA cross-sectional study nested in a cohort was conducted in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The one hundred and fifty five MSM included in the study answered an ACASI interview and provided biological samples. Generalized linear models were used to identify variables associated with UAI.ResultsOverall, UAI with an HIV-negative or unknown serostatus male partner was reported by 40.6% (63/155) of MSM. Lifetime sexual abuse or domestic violence was reported by 35.9%, being more frequent among MSM who reported UAI compared to those who did not (P = 0.001). Use of stimulants before sex was reported by 20% of the MSM, being slightly higher among those who reported UAI (27.0% vs. 15.2%; P = 0.072). Commercial sex was frequent among all MSM (48.4%). After multivariate modeling, the report of sexual abuse or domestic violence (OR = 2.70; 95% CI: 1.08-7.01), commercial sex (OR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.04- 5.10), the number of male sexual partners (p = 0.039) and exclusively receptive anal intercourse (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.06-0.75) remained associated with UAI. CD4 levels, HIV viral load and antiretroviral therapy were not associated with UAI.ConclusionThe UAI prevalence found with negative or unknown HIV status partners points out that other interventions are needed as additional prevention tools to vulnerable MSM. The main factors associated with UAI were a lifetime history of violence, commercial sex and the number of male sexual partners. This clustering of different behavioral, health and social problems in this population reinforce the need of a comprehensive approach on treating and preventing HIV among MSM.
Os manuais de medicina popular do dr. Chernoviz foram essenciais na difusão de saberes e práticas aprovados pelas instituições médicas oficiais para regiões rurais do Brasil imperial. Graças à carência de médicos nas áreas por onde se dispersava a maioria da população brasileira, esses livros foram uma presença mais evidente do que o contato com os médicos, que, em sua maioria, viviam nos principais núcleos urbanos. Assim, contribuíram para a instrução acadêmica de inúmeros praticantes leigos da medicina: senhores e senhoras de escravos, curandeiros, boticários e toda sorte de gente que os médicos tratavam por 'charlatães'. Elaborados de modo a facilitar a leitura, os manuais de medicina popular continham a descrição das moléstias, bem como os conselhos e medicamentos que deveriam ser empregados em cada uma delas, de fácil formulação e úteis na economia doméstica.
Purpose: Worldwide, the burden of adverse health conditions is substantial among travestis and transgender women (trans women). Transcendendo, the first trans-specific cohort in a low- or middle-income country, is an open cohort established in August 2015 to longitudinally evaluate the health aspects of trans women aged ≥18 years in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Methods: Study visits occur on an annual basis. Data on sociodemographics, behavioral, gender transition, affirmation procedures, hormone use, discrimination, violence, clinical and mental health, HIV prevention, and care (for those HIV-infected) are collected. Physical examination, anthropometric measurements, and laboratory tests are performed.Results: As of July 2017, 322 trans women were enrolled in the cohort with a median age of 31.5 years (interquartile range 25.7–39.5), of whom 174 (54%) were HIV-infected. The Transcendendo baseline information reinforces the scenario of marginalization and deprivation surrounding trans women. Most participants had low income (62.0% were living with below US$ 10.00/day), showed a very high engagement in sex work (78.6%), and reported increased occurrence of sexual (46.3%) and physical (54.0%) violence. Pre-exposure peophylaxis (PReP) was used by 18.8% of the HIV-uninfected trans women, only through research participation. Positive screening for depression (57.8%) and problematic use of tobacco (56.6%), cannabis (28.9%), cocaine (23.8%), and alcohol (21.5%) were high. Almost all participants (94.8%) reported hormone use at some point, mostly without medical supervision (78.7%).Conclusion: Our results describe a context of exclusion experienced by trans women, exposing vulnerabilities of this population in a middle-income country, with poor access to trans-specific care, HIV prevention and care, and mental health care. Addressing transgender experiences and needs can help the development of strategies to diminish stigma, improve health care environment, guide future research on trans morbidities, substance use, and trans-specific interventions to support health-related recommendations. Ultimately, it contributes to close the gaps concerning transgender health and reinforces that trans care cannot be disentangled from the social environment that surrounds trans women.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major cause of morbidity worldwide and a known factor leading to increased risk of death, especially in conjunction with other risk factors. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of DM among HIV-infected patients and its association with overall mortality. All HIV-infected patients 18 years or older who were followed in the Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas (INI) cohort from January 1991 to December 2011 were included. Time-updated covariables included DM status, calendar year, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), and CD4 cell counts. Fixed demographic covariables included gender and age at entry. Poisson models were used to calculate mortality rate ratios (RR) with robust variances. Among the 4,871 patients included, 1,192 (24.4%) died (mortality rate = 4.72/100 person-years [PY]; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.46-5.00). Death rates were significantly higher among those presenting with DM compared with those who did not (6.16/100 vs. 4.61/100 PY, respectively. p = 0.001). In the final model, DM was significantly associated with mortality (RR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.57-1.94; p < 0.001). When the analysis was restricted to those on cART or the period post-1996, the association between DM and mortality was even stronger (RR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.91-2.46; p < 0.001 and RR = 1.95; 95% CI = 1.75-2.18; p < 0.001, respectively). Among the major groups of cause of deaths (CODs), the proportion of AIDS-related conditions in patients with DM was lower (74.27% vs. 58.93%, respectively; p < 0.001); whereas in non-AIDS-related conditions, nonimmunodeficiency-related causes (22.44% vs. 34.82%, respectively; p = 0.004) were more common in patients with DM. In conclusion, DM was associated with increased mortality rates even after controlling for HIV-related variables associated to this outcome. Differences in the underlying CODs were identified, reinforcing the necessity to assess and treat comorbidities such as DM in HIV-infected patients.
TB was significantly associated with increased NTR CODs, indicating rapid progression of disease and increased long-term risk of mortality, probably related to persistent immunodeficiency or incomplete immune recovery. Our results confirm the benefits of HAART and TB prophylaxis.
Os Autores apresentam um caso de paracoccidioidomicose em indígena da tribo Suruí, Estado de Rondônia. Trata-se de paciente adulto, sexo masculino, tendo sido o diagnóstico confirmado com base em exame micológico, sorológico e radiográfico. Foi insitituída terapêutica com a associação sulfametoxazol 800 mg + trimetoprima 160 mg a cada 12 horas. A avaliação do paciente realizada seis meses após o início do tratamento revelou melhora no estado geral, regressão do quadro radiológico, negativação da prova de precipitação em tubo capilar e positivação da intradermorcação com paracoccidioidina. Os Autores também revêem os casos de paracoccidioidomicose descritos na região, em particular no que ser refere ao grupo indígena Suruí.
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