Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is a brush-border phosphomonoesterase. Its location suggests an involvement in the uptake of nutrients, but its role has not yet been defined. IAP expression parallels that of other proteins involved in Ca absorption under vitamin D stimulation. Experiments carried out in vitro with purified IAP have demonstrated an interaction between Ca and IAP. The gut is prepared to face different levels of Ca intake over time, but high Ca intake in a situation of a low-Ca diet over time would cause excessive entry of Ca into the enterocytes. The presence of a mechanism to block Ca entry and to avoid possible adverse effects is thus predictable. Thus, in the present study, Sprague -Dawley rats were fed with different amounts of Ca in the diet (0·2, 1 and 2 g%), and the percentage of Ca absorption (%Ca) in the presence and absence of L-phenylalanine (Phe) was calculated. The presence of Phe caused a significant increase in %Ca (52·3 (SEM 6·5) % in the presence of Phe v. 31·1 (SEM 8·9) % in the absence of Phe, regardless of the amount of Ca intake; paired t test, P¼ 0·02). When data were analysed with respect to Ca intake, a significant difference was found only in the group with low Ca intake (paired t test, P¼0·03). Additionally, IAP activity increased significantly (ANOVA, P,0·05) as Ca concentrations increased in the duodenal lumen. The present study provides in vivo evidence that luminal Ca concentration increases the activity of IAP and simultaneously decreases %Ca, acting as a minute-to-minute regulatory mechanism of Ca entry.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease with high prevalence of osteoporosis. Previous evidence indicates an association between vitamin D deficiency and autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels, bone mineral density (BMD) and disease activity in RA patients living in Argentina. We studied 34 RA women and 41 healthy women as a control group. RA patients had lower 25(OH)D levels (20.4 ± 0.9 ng/ml) than controls (26.3 ± 1.9 ng/ml; p < 0.05). No significant differences were found in lumbar spine BMD between premenopausal (preM) or postmenopausal (postM) patients, but femoral neck BMD was significantly lower in postM RA patients (T score -2.5 ± 0.4) than in postM control subjects (T score -0.9 ± 0.3, p = 0.014). Although no linear correlation between 25(OH)D levels and disease activity (DAS-28) was found, patients with moderate-high disease activity had lower 25(OH)D levels than those with low disease activity: DAS-28 >3.2: 19.5 ± 0.88 ng/ml; DAS-28 ≤3.2: 23.7 ± 2.8 ng/ml (p = 0.047). After 1 year of vitamin D treatment 25(OH)D levels were increased while DAS-28 were decreased (n = 25; p < 0.05). We conclude that patients with RA had lower 25(OH)D levels than the control group. Low levels of 25(OH)D were associated with moderate-high disease activity suggesting the importance of optimal 25(OH)D levels in RA patients. Femoral neck BMD was lower in postM RA patients. No differences in lumbar BMD were found between preM and postM RA patients, suggesting that bone mass evaluation in RA patients should include femoral neck BMD regardless of age.
Two fractions of rat intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) were detected by Western blot: 168 +/- 6 and 475 +/- 45 kDa. The low molecular weight fraction constitutes 43% of the isolated proteins exhibiting 82% of the enzymatic activity, and a heavier fraction constitutes 57% of the isolated proteins and has 18% of the enzymatic activity. Calcium produced an increase of the 475-kDa form to the detriment of the 168-kDa form. This work also describes the kinetic and structural changes of IAP as a function of calcium concentration. With [Ca2+] < 10 mmole/L, the Ca(2+)-IAP interaction fitted a binding model with 7.8 +/- 4.4 moles of Ca2+ /mole of protein, affinity constant = 19.1 +/- 8.4 L/mmole, and enzymatic activity increased as a linear function of [Ca2+] (r = 0.946 p < 0.01). On the other hand, with [Ca2+] > 10 mmole/L the data did not fit this model and, the enzymatic activity decreased as a function of [Ca2+] (r = - 0.703 p < 0.05).
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of denosumab (Dmab) on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers after 1 year of treatment. Additionally, the effect of Dmab in bisphosphonate-naïve patients (BP-naïve) compared to patients previously treated with bisphosphonates (BP-prior) was analyzed. This retrospective study included 425 postmenopausal women treated with Dmab for 1 year in clinical practice conditions in specialized centers from Argentina. Participants were also divided according to previous bisphosphonate treatment into BP-naïve and BP-prior. A control group of patients treated with BP not switched to Dmab matched by sex, age, and body mass index was used. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. After 1 year of treatment with Dmab the bone formation markers total alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were significantly decreased (23.36% and 43.97%, resp.), as was the bone resorption marker s-CTX (69.61%). Significant increases in BMD were observed at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip without differences between BP-naïve and BP-prior. A better BMD response was found in BP-prior group compared with BP treated patients not switched to Dmab. Conclusion. Dmab treatment increased BMD and decreased bone turnover markers in the whole group, with similar response in BP-naïve and BP-prior patients. A better BMD response in BP-prior patients versus BP treated patients not switched to Dmab was observed.
Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is a xanthine-containing beverage, which is also rich in caffeine. Because caffeine has a negative impact on bone mineral density (BMD) mainly associated with low calcium (Ca) diets, there would be expected a negative effect of yerba mate on bone. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were used and randomly assigned into four groups (n = 6/group): Control + Ca 0.2 g %; Control + Ca 0.9 g %; Yerba + Ca 0.2 g %; Yerba + Ca 0.9 g %. At the end of the experiment, tibias and femurs were obtained for BMD, morphometric, histomorphometric, and biomechanical analyses. While there was no difference in bone parameters between rats with and without yerba mate consumption, a negative effect of low Ca diet was observed in BMD, morphometric, histomorphometric, and biomechanical results. Interaction between Ca content in the diet and yerba mate was only found in trabecular bone volume, which would indicate that the negative effect of low Ca intake on bone volume is reversed in part by yerba mate infusion. However, yerba mate was not able to reverse the negative effect of low Ca content on biomechanical properties and trabecular connectivity. In summary, at least in our study, yerba mate would not have a negative effect on bone and would be safe for the bone health of consumers.
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