Nursing is a specific field of knowledge and social practice that has been consolidated and strengthened as science. In Brazil, it has been developed due to the increase and qualification of strict sense post-graduate programs. This study aims to present a historical review of the strict sense post-graduate nursing courses in Brazil and to reflect on their evolution, progress, challenges and future perspectives. It explores the creation of strict sense post-graduate courses, highlighting the movement to build a culture of academic and professional post-graduation in nursing. The historical path of their consolidation, expansion, conquest of excellence and international visibility over four decades, and the challenges and future perspectives are showed. It is found that the post-graduate programs in the field has contributed to the advancement and consolidation of scientific, technological knowledge and innovation in nursing and health care, having as philosophy the respect for diversity and the free exchange of ideas, the improvement of quality of life and health, and the effectiveness of citizenship.
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) classifies Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) as Mild (14–15); Moderate (9–13) or Severe (3–8). The ATLS modified this classification so that a GCS score of 13 is categorized as mild TBI. We investigated the effect of this modification on mortality prediction, comparing patients with a GCS of 13 classified as moderate TBI (Classic Model) to patients with GCS of 13 classified as mild TBI (Modified Model).
We selected adult TBI patients from the Pennsylvania Outcome Study database (PTOS). Logistic regressions adjusting for age, sex, cause, severity, trauma center level, comorbidities, and isolated TBI were performed. A second evaluation included the time trend of mortality. A third evaluation also included hypothermia, hypotension, mechanical ventilation, screening for drugs, and severity of TBI. Discrimination of the models was evaluated using the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Calibration was evaluated using the Hoslmer-Lemershow goodness of fit (GOF) test.
In the first evaluation, the AUCs were 0.922 (95 %CI, 0.917–0.926) and 0.908 (95 %CI, 0.903–0.912) for classic and modified models, respectively. Both models showed poor calibration (p<0.001). In the third evaluation, the AUCs were 0.946 (95 %CI, 0.943 – 0.949) and 0.938 (95 %CI, 0.934 –0.940) for the classic and modified models, respectively, with improvements in calibration (p=0.30 and p=0.02 for the classic and modified models, respectively).
The lack of overlap between ROC curves of both models reveals a statistically significant difference in their ability to predict mortality. The classic model demonstrated better GOF than the modified model. A GCS of 13 classified as moderate TBI in a multivariate logistic regression model performed better than a GCS of 13 classified as mild.
Circulating levels of anandamide are increased in cirrhotic patients. However, this elevation was unrelated to the extent of arterial vasodilation, the severity of portal hypertension or the degree of hepatic and renal dysfunction. Although a local hormonal action cannot be excluded, our results do not support a relevant contribution of this system in the hemodynamic disturbance of cirrhosis.
Extended hours of sales and consumption of alcohol were associated with increased risk of homicides. Strong restrictions on alcohol availability could reduce the incidence of interpersonal violence events in communities where homicides are high.
The aim of this study is to explore arguments that broaden the understanding of possible links between the organization of nursing care and the structuring of professional identity. For that purpose, some aspects related to these themes are addressed, highlighting issues regarding differences in the concepts of the organization of nursing care and the nursing process, as well as the performance of this activity and its possible impact on the establishment of its relationship with the professional identity. Emphasis is given to the need to stimulate the debate on the subject by nursing professionals involved in the training of human resources and the provision of care, as well as in class entities, in order to deepen understanding of these concepts as significant elements for strengthening our professional identity.
Pressure ulcers are an important perioperatory care quality indicator This is a longitudinal case series study, performed with the following objectives: to estimate the incidence of pressure ulcers in patients submitted to medium and large surgeries; rate them according to the stage and location; verify the association with the variables: gender, age, body mass index (BMI), co-morbidities, surgical position, duration of surgery, anesthesia type and use of positioning devices, with presence or absence of pressure ulcers. Data collection took place in 2007 in São Paulo, with 199 patients, 20.6% of which presented pressure ulcers, and most (98.6%) in stages I and II, and the main location was the trunk (35.1%). The variables: position, surgery time, general anesthesia, and device use had a statistically significant association. In conclusion, there is a high incidence of pressure ulcers among surgical patients, requiring actions aimed at reducing this type of injury.
Este estudo teve como objetivos identificar as ações de enfermagem prescritas pelas enfermeiras do Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia (IDPC) para pacientes com o diagnóstico de enfermagem Desobstrução Ineficaz de Vias Aéreas e compará-las com as contidas na Classificação das Intervenções de Enfermagem (NIC), visando ao aprimoramento da prescrição de enfermagem para este diagnóstico. Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo, cuja fonte de dados foram 435 prontuários de pacientes internados no período de julho a dezembro de 2000, analisados após aprovação do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa do IDPC. As ações de enfermagem prescritas pelas enfermeiras foram: fazer inalação, estimular deambulação, sentar paciente em poltrona, estimular a tosse, estimular a ingestão hídrica, aspirar a cânula endotraqueal, observar padrão respiratório, a saturação de oxigênio, a presença de cianose de extremidades e fazer ausculta pulmonar. Foram identificadas algumas convergências com a NIC, tais como: facilitar a remoção de secreção por meio de hidratação, mobilização do paciente, estímulo da tosse, aspiração de secreção e controle/monitorização da condição respiratória. Considera-se que as ações prescritas pelas enfermeiras são pertinentes, porém faltam-lhes detalhamento para melhor direcionar sua execução.
This article discusses a descriptive-analytic study on research methodology education practices directed at nurse clinicians who work at a university hospital and aimed at acquiring scientific research competencies on the basis of discovery learning, tutorials and humanistic teaching strategies. Study participants were eighty-six nurses, 70 of whom concluded their projects. 28 of these resulted in scientific studies, most of which were experience reports, descriptive and exploratory investigations. According to the nurses, the program allowed them to acquire and apply their research know-how. They pointed out the lack of mastering scientific methodology and the limitations of administrative and work conditions at the institution as the main difficulties. Among the facilitators, they highlighted the importance of research to modify clinical practice, the publication of results and the collaboration for the maintenance of a research center. The study showed the need for a flexible planning of educational activities, permanent guidance and respect for the particularities of each nurse.
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