The growing human population and a changing environment have raised significant concern for global food security, with the current improvement rate of several important crops inadequate to meet future demand . This slow improvement rate is attributed partly to the long generation times of crop plants. Here, we present a method called 'speed breeding', which greatly shortens generation time and accelerates breeding and research programmes. Speed breeding can be used to achieve up to 6 generations per year for spring wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and pea (Pisum sativum), and 4 generations for canola (Brassica napus), instead of 2-3 under normal glasshouse conditions. We demonstrate that speed breeding in fully enclosed, controlled-environment growth chambers can accelerate plant development for research purposes, including phenotyping of adult plant traits, mutant studies and transformation. The use of supplemental lighting in a glasshouse environment allows rapid generation cycling through single seed descent (SSD) and potential for adaptation to larger-scale crop improvement programs. Cost saving through light-emitting diode (LED) supplemental lighting is also outlined. We envisage great potential for integrating speed breeding with other modern crop breeding technologies, including high-throughput genotyping, genome editing and genomic selection, accelerating the rate of crop improvement.
Allopolyploids must possess a mechanism for facilitating synapsis and crossover (CO) between homologues, in preference to homoeologues (related chromosomes), to ensure successful meiosis. In hexaploid wheat, the Ph1 locus has a major effect on the control of these processes. Studying a wheat mutant lacking Ph1 provides an opportunity to explore the underlying mechanisms. Recently, it was proposed that Ph1 stabilises wheat during meiosis, both by promoting homologue synapsis during early meiosis and preventing MLH1 sites on synapsed homoeologues from becoming COs later in meiosis. Here, we explore these two effects and demonstrate firstly that whether or not Ph1 is present, synapsis between homoeologues does not take place during the telomere bouquet stage, with only homologous synapsis taking place during this stage. Furthermore, in wheat lacking Ph1, overall synapsis is delayed with respect to the telomere bouquet, with more synapsis occurring after the bouquet stage, when homoeologous synapsis is also possible. Secondly, we show that in the absence of Ph1, we can increase the number of MLH1 sites progressing to COs by altering environmental growing conditions; we show that higher nutrient levels in the soil or lower temperatures increase the level of both homologue and homoeologue COs. These observations suggest opportunities to improve the exploitation of the Ph1 wheat mutant in breeding programmes.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00412-017-0630-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Wild relatives provide an important source of useful traits in wheat breeding. Wheat and wild relative hybrids have been widely used in breeding programs to introduce such traits into wheat. However, successful introgression is limited by the low frequency of homoeologous crossover (CO) between wheat and wild relative chromosomes. Hybrids between wheat carrying a 70 Mb deletion on chromosome 5B (ph1b) and wild relatives, have been exploited to increase the level of homoeologous CO, allowing chromosome exchange between their chromosomes. In ph1b-rye hybrids, CO number increases from a mean of 1 CO to 7 COs per cell. CO number can be further increased up to a mean of 12 COs per cell in these ph1b hybrids by treating the plants with Hoagland solution. More recently, it was shown that the major meiotic crossover gene ZIP4 on chromosome 5B (TaZIP4-B2) within the 70 Mb deletion, was responsible for the restriction of homoeologous COs in wheat-wild relative hybrids, confirming the ph1b phenotype as a complete Tazip4-B2 deletion mutant (Tazip4-B2 ph1b). In this study, we have identified the particular Hoagland solution constituent responsible for the increased chiasma frequency in Tazip4-B2 ph1b mutant-rye hybrids and extended the analysis to Tazip4-B2 TILLING and CRISPR mutant-Ae variabilis hybrids. Chiasma frequency at meiotic metaphase I, in the absence of each Hoagland solution macronutrient (NH4 H2PO4, KNO3, Ca (NO3)2·4H2O or Mg SO4·7H2O) was analyzed. A significant decrease in homoeologous CO frequency was observed when the Mg2+ ion was absent. A significant increase of homoeologous CO frequency was observed in all analyzed hybrids, when plants were irrigated with a 1 mM Mg2+ solution. These observations suggest a role for magnesium supplementation in improving the success of genetic material introgression from wild relatives into wheat.
Despite possessing related ancestral genomes, hexaploid wheat behaves as a diploid during meiosis. The wheat Ph1 locus promotes accurate synapsis and crossover of homologous chromosomes. Interspecific hybrids between wheat and wild relatives are exploited by breeders to introgress important traits from wild relatives into wheat, although in hybrids between hexaploid wheat and wild relatives, which possess only homoeologues, crossovers do not take place during meiosis at metaphase I. However, in hybrids between Ph1 deletion mutants and wild relatives, crossovers do take place. A single Ph1 deletion (ph1b) mutant has been exploited for the last 40 years for this activity. We show here that chemically induced mutant lines, selected for a mutation in TaZIP4-B2 within the Ph1 locus, exhibit high levels of homoeologous crossovers when crossed with wild relatives. Tazip4-B2 mutant lines may be more stable over multiple generations, as multivalents causing accumulation of chromosome translocations are less frequent. Exploitation of such Tazip4-B2 mutants, rather than mutants with whole Ph1 locus deletions, may therefore improve introgression of wild relative chromosome segments into wheat.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-017-0700-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Non-random gene organization in eukaryotes plays a significant role in genome evolution. Here, we investigate the origin of a biosynthetic gene cluster for production of defence compounds in oat—the avenacin cluster. We elucidate the structure and organisation of this 12-gene cluster, characterise the last two missing pathway steps, and reconstitute the entire pathway in tobacco by transient expression. We show that the cluster has formed de novo since the divergence of oats in a subtelomeric region of the genome that lacks homology with other grasses, and that gene order is approximately colinear with the biosynthetic pathway. We speculate that the positioning of the late pathway genes furthest away from the telomere may mitigate against a ‘self-poisoning’ scenario in which toxic intermediates accumulate as a result of telomeric gene deletions. Our investigations reveal a striking example of adaptive evolution underpinned by remarkable genome plasticity.
The growing human population and a changing environment have raised significant concern for global food security, with the current improvement rate of several important crops inadequate to meet future demand . This slow improvement rate is attributed partly to the long generation times of crop plants. Here we present a method called 'speed breeding', . CC-BY 4.0 International license It is made available under a (which was not peer-reviewed) is the author/funder, who has granted bioRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity.The copyright holder for this preprint . http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/161182 doi: bioRxiv preprint first posted online Jul. 9, 2017; Watson and Ghosh et al. (2017) 2 which greatly shortens generation time and accelerates breeding and research programs.Speed breeding can be used to achieve up to 6 generations per year for spring wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), chickpea (Cicer arietinum), and pea (Pisum sativum) and 4 generations for canola (Brassica napus), instead of 2-3 under normal glasshouse conditions. We demonstrate that speed breeding in fully-enclosed controlled-environment growth chambers can accelerate plant development for research purposes, including phenotyping of adult plant traits, mutant studies, and transformation.The use of supplemental lighting in a glasshouse environment allows rapid generation cycling through single seed descent and potential for adaptation to larger-scale crop improvement programs. Cost-saving through LED supplemental lighting is also outlined. We envisage great potential for integrating speed breeding with other modern crop breeding technologies, including high-throughput genotyping, genome editing, and genomic selection, accelerating the rate of crop improvement.For most crop plants, the breeding of new, advanced cultivars, takes several years. Following crossing of selected parent lines, 4-6 generations of inbreeding are typically required to develop genetically stable lines for evaluation of agronomic traits and yield. This is particularly timeconsuming for field-grown crops that are often limited to only 1-2 generations per year. Here, we present flexible protocols for "speed breeding" that use prolonged photoperiods to accelerate the developmental rate of plants , thereby reducing generation time. We highlight the opportunity presented by speed breeding and detail protocols to inspire widespread adoption as a state-of-theart breeding and research tool.To evaluate speed breeding as a method to accelerate applied and basic research on cereal species, standard genotypes of spring bread wheat (T. aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), barley (H. vulgare) and the model grass Brachypodium distachyon were grown in a controlled environment room with extended photoperiod (22 hours light/2 hours dark) ( Fig. 1; Methods:Speed breeding I; Supplementary Table 1). A light/dark period was chosen over a continuous photoperiod to support functional expression of circadian clock genes . Growth was compare...
(BBSRC), through three grants (Grant BB/J004588/1; Grant BB/M009599/1; Grant 2 5 . CC-BY-NC 4.0 International license It is made available under a (which was not peer-reviewed) is the author/funder, who has granted bioRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity.The copyright holder for this preprint . http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/142596 doi: bioRxiv preprint first posted online May. 26, 7 8Key message 9Exploiting the ZIP4 homologue within the wheat Ph1 locus has identified two wheat 3 0 mutants through a non-GM route, which can be exploited as an alternative to the 3 1Chinese Spring ph1b mutant in wheat introgression strategies.
Analyzing differences in tolerance to drought in Quercus spp., and the characterization of these responses at the species and individual population level, are imperative for the selection of resilient elite genotypes in reforestation programs. The main objective of this work was to evaluate differences in the response and tolerance to water shortage under in five Quercus spp. and five Andalusian Q. ilex populations at the inter- and intraspecies level. Six-month-old seedlings grown in perlite were subjected to drought treatments by withholding water for 28 days under mean 37 °C temperature, 28 W m−2 solar irradiance, and 41% humidity. The use of perlite as the substrate enabled the establishment of severe drought stress with reduction in water availability from 73% (field capacity) to 28% (dryness), corresponding to matric potentials of 0 and −30 kPa. Damage symptoms, mortality rate, leaf water content, photosynthetic, and biochemical parameters (amino acids, sugars, phenolics, and pigments) were determined. At the phenotypic level, based on damage symptoms and mortality, Q. ilex behaved as the most drought tolerant species. Drought caused a significant decrease in leaf fluorescence, photosynthesis rate, and stomatal conductance in all Quercus spp. analyzed, being less pronounced in Q. ilex. There were not differences between irrigated and non-irrigated Q. ilex seedlings in the content of sugar and photosynthetic pigments, while the total amino acid and phenolic content significantly increased under drought conditions. As a response to drought, living Q. ilex seedlings adjust stomata opening and gas exchange, and keep hydrated, photosynthetically active, and metabolically competent. At the population level, based on damage symptoms, mortality, and physiological parameters, the eastern Andalusian populations were more tolerant than the western ones. These observations inform the basis for the selection of resilient genotypes to be used in breeding and reforestation programs.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers