Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory systemic disease. Evidence shows an association
of psoriasis with arthritis, depression, inflammatory bowel disease and
cardiovascular diseases. Recently, several other comorbid conditions have been
proposed as related to the chronic inflammatory status of psoriasis. The
understanding of these conditions and their treatments will certainly lead to better
management of the disease. The present article aims to synthesize the knowledge in
the literature about the classical and emerging comorbidities related to
Objectives: To review the literature on diseases linked with infection by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) in childhood and adolescence, with focus on clinical aspects, diagnosis, pathogenesis, progression and treatment.Sources: Medical literature published during the last 20 years identified using PubMed and MEDLINE and from specialized medical books, with emphasis on infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-I (IDH), on the juvenile form of HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), on adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and on HTLV-I-associated uveitis. Keywords used to search databases were: HTLV-I-associated infective dermatitis, HTLV-Iassociated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, HTLV-I-associated uveitis.Summary of the findings: IDH is a chronic, relapsing and infected dermatitis of childhood which always involves the scalp and which may progress to HAM/TSP and ATL. HAM/TSP is a chronic and incapacitating myelopathy of adults. There are 17 well-documented cases of HAM/TSP in children and adolescents in the literature, 12 of whom are patients with IDH. In contrast with the adult form of the disease, the juvenile form is rapid and progressive. ATL is a type of T-cell leukemia/ lymphoma that affects adults and is generally fatal. Eleven of the 24 published reports of ATL in children and adolescents were diagnosed in Brazil.Conclusions: These diseases are likely to be more common in childhood and adolescence than the literature would suggest. It is advisable that serological testing be performed for HTLV-I in children and adolescents suffering from chronic and relapsing eczema, with signs and symptoms of myelopathy or with a diagnosis of T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. It is important that pediatricians know how to recognize the pediatric manifestations of this infection in order to correctly diagnose them and offer their patients appropriate guidance and treatment.
The onset of IDH may occur earlier than reported in the literature. The scalp and retroauricular regions are always affected, and lesions are invariably present in ≥3 areas. Crusting of the nostrils cannot be considered an obligatory factor for the diagnosis of IDH. The recurring nature of IDH was a characteristic found in all cases. Patients with classic IDH lesions who are serologically negative should be investigated by PCR. Therefore, the indispensable criteria for diagnosis are (1) presence of erythematous-scaly, exudative, and crusted lesions involving ≥3 areas, including the scalp and retroauricular regions; (2) recurring nature of the lesions; and (3) a finding of HTLV-1 infection by serology or molecular biology.
Skin lesions are frequent in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection and may constitute an alert for the diagnosis of this condition. The most severe skin diseases related to this virus are adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), an aggressive form of leukemia/lymphoma that fails to respond to chemotherapy, and infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH), a severe and recurrent form of eczema occurring in childhood. ATLL affects the skin in 43-72% of cases. In this review, the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical aspects of ATLL and IDH will be discussed, as well as the differential diagnoses, giving particular focus to the primary cutaneous ATLL. IDH may progress to HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and to ATLL. Adult onset IDH and reactional and inflammatory dermatoses found in carriers and also in patients with HAM/TSP will be considered. Other dermatological diseases that occur more frequently in HTLV-1-infected individuals such as xerosis, acquired ichthyosis, seborrheic dermatitis and infectious and parasitic dermatoses will also be discussed.
A strong association was observed between IDH and HAM/TSP. The familial clustering of both diseases suggests a genetic background. Serological screening for HTLV-1 in children with symptoms of myelopathy is essential in areas where HTLV-1 is endemic.
Inherited epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders
that present with skin and, in some cases, mucosal fragility, predisposing patients
to the development of blisters and/or erosions after minimal trauma or friction.
Children with a recurrent history of these kinds of lesions or neonates that present
them in the absence of another reasonable explanation should be investigated.
Diagnosis must be based on clinical and histopathological findings. To date,
management of inherited EB basically consists in avoiding traumas that trigger
lesions, as well as preventing infection and facilitating healing of the wounds with
the systematic use of bandages.
We describe a patient with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated infective dermatitis who developed HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis and adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma at 16 years of age. Long inverse polymerase chain reaction was used to demonstrate monoclonal integration of proviral DNA in the lymphomatous skin lesion.
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