BackgroundThis is the first updated Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Society guideline presenting a consensus for optimal perioperative care in gynecologic/oncology surgery.MethodsA database search of publications using Embase and PubMed was performed. Studies on each item within the ERAS gynecologic/oncology protocol were selected with emphasis on meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, and large prospective cohort studies. These studies were then reviewed and graded according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system.ResultsAll recommendations on ERAS protocol items are based on best available evidence. The level of evidence for each item is presented accordingly.ConclusionsThe updated evidence base and recommendation for items within the ERAS gynecologic/oncology perioperative care pathway are presented by the ERAS® Society in this consensus review.
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is displayed by approximately 15% of colorectal cancers (CRC). Defective DNA mismatch repair generates mutations at repetitive DNA sequences such as those located in the double strand break (DSB) repair gene MRE11. We assessed the mutational status of MRE11 in a panel of 17 CRC cell lines and 46 primary tumors and found a strong correlation with MSI status in both cell lines and tumors. Therefore, we hypothesized that deficiency in MRE11 may sensitize CRC cells to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1) inhibition based on the concept of synthetic lethality. We further assessed the activity of the PARP-1 inhibitor, ABT-888, in CRC cell lines and observed preferential cytotoxicity in those MSI cell lines harboring mutations in MRE11 compared with both wild-type cell lines and microsatellite stable (MSS) cell lines. A significant correlation between MRE11 expression levels and cytotoxicity to ABT-888 at 10 mM was observed (R 2 ¼ 0.915, P < 0.001). Using two experimental approaches, including short hairpin RNA knocking down MRE11 in the wild-type and MSS cell line SW-480 and a second cell line model transfected with mutant MRE11, we experimentally tried to confirm the role of MRE11 in conferring sensitivity to PARP-1 inhibition. Both models led to changes in proliferation in response to ABT-888 at different concentrations, and a drug-response effect was not observed, suggesting a possible contribution of additional genes. We conclude that MSI colorectal tumors deficient in DSB repair secondary to mutation in MRE11 show a higher sensitivity to PARP-1 inhibition. Further clinical investigation of PARP-1 inhibitors is warranted in MSI CRCs. Cancer Res; 71(7); 2632-42. Ó2011 AACR.
The analytical algorithm of Lynch syndrome (LS) is increasingly complex. BRAF V600E mutation and MLH1 promoter hypermethylation have been proposed as a screening tool for the identification of LS. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical usefulness and cost-effectiveness of both somatic alterations to improve the yield of the diagnostic algorithm of LS. A total of 122 colorectal tumors from individuals with family history of colorectal cancer that showed microsatellite instability and/or loss of mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression were studied. MMR germline mutations were detected in 57 cases (40 MLH1, 15 MSH2 and 2 MSH6). BRAF V600E mutation was assessed by single-nucleotide primer extension. MLH1 promoter hypermethylation was assessed by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in a subset of 71 cases with loss of MLH1 protein. A decision model was developed to estimate the incremental costs of alternative case-finding methods for detecting MLH1 mutation carriers. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed to assess robustness of estimations. Sensitivity of the absence of BRAF mutations for depiction of LS patients was 96% (23/24) and specificity was 28% (13/47). Specificity of MLH1 promoter hypermethylation for depiction of sporadic tumors was 66% (31/47) and sensitivity of 96% (23/24). The cost per additional mutation detected when using hypermethylation analysis was lower when compared with BRAF study and germinal MLH1 mutation study. Somatic hypermethylation of MLH1 is an accurate and cost-effective pre-screening method in the selection of patients that are candidates for MLH1 germline analysis when LS is suspected and MLH1 protein expression is absent.
Implementation of an ERAS program was associated with significantly decreased opioid use after surgery and improvement in key patient-reported outcomes associated with functional recovery after surgery without compromising pain scores.
Recently, constitutional MLH1 epimutations have been identified in a subset of Lynch syndrome (LS) cases. The aim of this study was the identification of patients harboring constitutional MLH1 epimutations in a set of 34 patients with a clinical suspicion of LS, MLH1-methylated tumors and non-detected germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. MLH1 promoter methylation was analyzed in lymphocyte DNA samples by MS-MLPA (Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification). Confirmation of MLH1 constitutional methylation was performed by MS-MCA (Methylation-specific melting curve analysis), bisulfite sequencing and pyrosequencing in different biological samples. Allelic expression was determined using heterozygous polymorphisms. Vertical transmission was evaluated by MS-MLPA and haplotype analyses. MS-MLPA analysis detected constitutional MLH1 methylation in 2 of the 34 individuals whose colorectal cancers showed MLH1 methylation (5.9%). These results were confirmed by bisulfite-based methods. Both epimutation carriers had developed metachronous early-onset LS tumors, with no family history of LS-associated cancers in their first-degree relatives. In one of the cases, the identified MLH1 constitutional methylation was monoallelic and results in MLH1 and EPM2AIP1 allele-specific transcriptional silencing. It was present in normal somatic tissues and absent in spermatozoa. The methylated MLH1 allele was maternally transmitted and methylation was reversed in a daughter who inherited the same allele. MLH1 methylation screening in lymphocyte DNA from patients with early-onset MLH1-methylated LS-associated tumors allows the identification of epimutation carriers. The present study adds further evidence to the emerging entity of soma-wide MLH1 epimutation and its heritability.
There is widespread interest in the ERAS® guidelines for gynecologic oncology. • Many clinical departments still struggle with how to initiate their ERAS® program. • These recommendations will help translate the ERAS® guidelines into practice.
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