Increasing empirical evidence indicates the number of released individuals (i.e. propagule pressure) and number of released species (i.e. colonization pressure) are key determinants of the number of species that successfully invade new habitats. In view of these relationships, and the possibility that ships transport whole communities of organisms, we collected 333 ballast water and sediment samples to investigate the relationship between propagule and colonization pressure for a variety of diverse taxonomic groups (diatoms, dinoflagellates and invertebrates). We also reviewed the scientific literature to compare the number of species transported by ships to those reported in nature. Here, we show that even though ships transport nearly entire local communities, a strong relationship between propagule and colonization pressure exists only for dinoflagellates. Our study provides evidence that colonization pressure of invertebrates and diatoms may fluctuate widely irrespective of propagule pressure. We suggest that the lack of correspondence is explained by reduced uptake of invertebrates into the transport vector and the sensitivity of invertebrates and diatoms to selective pressures during transportation. Selection during transportation is initially evident through decreases in propagule pressure, followed by decreased colonization pressure in the most sensitive taxa.
The region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) operon containing the small subunit (SSU), internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), and a portion of the 5.8s rDNA gene was sequenced in one isolate each of Pseudo‐nitzschia multiseries (Hasle) Hasle and Pseudo‐nitzschia pungens (Grunow in Cleve & Möller) Hasle. The SSUs of these two species were highly similar, differing only in 14 point mutations and one insertion/deletion in 1774 bp. The ITS1 sequences were more variable, with 57 point mutations and three insertion/deletions in 257 bp. There were no differences in 44 bp of the 5.8S sequences. Restriction fragment patterns (RFPs) for the restriction endonucleases HaeIII, Hha1, and Rsa1 for 13 isolates of P. multiseries from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts of the United States and 16 isolates of P. pungens from the three coasts of the United States, in addition to Japan and China, were compared. There were differences between the RFPs of P. multiseries and P. pungens that corresponded to sites mapped by the DNA sequences, but no infraspecific variation in RFPs was observed for either species. The differences in RFPs correlate with morphological, immunological, and other rDNA differences and support the recognition of these taxa as separate species.
Variations of nanoplankton (2-20 µm) and filamentous bacteria (diameter: 0.5-2.0 µm) of Guanabara Bay (RJ, Brazil) are presented, considering cell density and carbon content of auto- and heterotrophs. Our goal is to contribute to future modeling of local trophic dynamics. Subsurface water samples were taken weekly during the year 2000 at two sites: Urca (close to the entrance, more saline, eutrophic) and Ramos (inner area, less saline, hypertrophic). Microscopic analysis was done by epifluorescence and cell density was converted to biomass through cell biovolume. Total nanoplankton was about 10(8) cells.l-1 in most samples (>57%), and total filamentous bacteria densities varied from 10(5) to 10(8) fil.l-1. Autotroph density was one order of magnitude higher at Ramos, both for nanoplankton (Md: 10(8)cells.l-1 at Ramos and 10(7)cells.l-1 at Urca) and for filamentous bacteria (Md: 10(6) fil.l-1 at Ramos and 10(5) fil.l-1 at Urca). The same was observed for autotrophic biomass (Md: 10³µgC.l-1 at Ramos and 10¹µgC.l-1 at Urca for nanoplankton; Md: 28µgC.l-1 at Ramos and 1.4µgC.l-1 at Urca for filamentous bacteria). The relative contribution of autotrophs increased after conversion to biomass. Seasonal variation was conspicuous for filamentous bacteria at both sites and for nanoplankton only at Ramos, with maximum autotrophic abundances during the rainy period (spring-summer). Variações do nanoplâncton (2-20µm) e bactérias filamentosas (diâmetro: 0.5-2.0 µm) da Baía de Guanabara (RJ, Brasil) são apresentadas, considerando densidade celular e biomassa de autótrofos e heterótrofos. A meta deste trabalho é contribuir para uma futura modelagem da dinâmica trófica neste sistema. Amostras subsuperficiais de água foram coletadas semanalmente durante um ano em dois pontos: Urca (próximo à entrada, mais salino, eutrófico) e Ramos (no interior, menos salino, hipertrófico). Foi feita análise por microscopia de epifluorescência, com densidade celular convertida para biomassa através do biovolume celular. A concentração do nanoplâncton total foi alta (10(8)cel.l-1) na maioria das amostras (>57%) e das bactérias filamentosas variou de 10(5) a 10(8)fil.l-1. A densidade de autótrofos em Ramos foi uma ordem de grandeza superior tanto para o nanoplâncton (Md: 10(8)cel.l-1 em Ramos e 10(7)cel.l-1 na Urca) quanto para as bactérias filamentosas (Md: 10(6)fil.l-1 em Ramos e 10(5)fil.l-1 na Urca). A biomassa autotrófica do nanoplâncton (Md: 10³µgC.l-1 em Ramos e 10¹µgC.l-1 na Urca) e das bactérias filamentosas (Md: 28µgC.l-1 em Ramos e 1,4µgC.l-1 na Urca) seguiu o mesmo padrão. A contribuição relativa de autótrofos aumentou após a conversão para biomassa. Uma tendência temporal foi evidenciada para as bactérias filamentosas em ambos os pontos e, para o nanoplâncton autotrófico, em Ramos, com valores máximos no período chuvoso (primavera-verão)
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