The system of the paranasal sinuses morphologically represents one of the most complex parts of the equine body. A clear understanding of spatial relationships is needed for correct diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this study was to describe the anatomy and volume of equine paranasal sinuses using three-dimensional (3D) reformatted renderings of computed tomography (CT) slices. Heads of 18 cadaver horses, aged 2-25 years, were analyzed by the use of separate semi-automated segmentation of the following bilateral paranasal sinus compartments: rostral maxillary sinus (Sinus maxillaris rostralis), ventral conchal sinus (Sinus conchae ventralis), caudal maxillary sinus (Sinus maxillaris caudalis), dorsal conchal sinus (Sinus conchae dorsalis), frontal sinus (Sinus frontalis), sphenopalatine sinus (Sinus sphenopalatinus), and middle conchal sinus (Sinus conchae mediae). Reconstructed structures were displayed separately, grouped, or altogether as transparent or solid elements to visualize individual paranasal sinus morphology. The paranasal sinuses appeared to be divided into two systems by the maxillary septum (Septum sinuum maxillarium). The first or rostral system included the rostral maxillary and ventral conchal sinus. The second or caudal system included the caudal maxillary, dorsal conchal, frontal, sphenopalatine, and middle conchal sinuses. These two systems overlapped and were interlocked due to the oblique orientation of the maxillary septum. Total volumes of the paranasal sinuses ranged from 911.50 to 1502.00 ml (mean ± SD, 1151.00 ± 186.30 ml). 3D renderings of equine paranasal sinuses by use of semi-automated segmentation of CT-datasets improved understanding of this anatomically challenging region.
BackgroundAdipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSCs) are frequently used to treat equine tendinopathies. Up to now, knowledge about the fate of autologous AT-MSCs after intralesional injection into equine superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFTs) is very limited. The purpose of this study was to monitor the presence of intralesionally injected autologous AT-MSCs labelled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles and green fluorescent protein (GFP) over a staggered period of 3 to 9 weeks with standing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology.MethodsFour adult warmblood horses received a unilateral injection of 10 × 106 autologous AT-MSCs into surgically created front-limb SDFT lesions. Administered AT-MSCs expressed lentivirally transduced reporter genes for GFP and were co-labelled with SPIO particles in three horses. The presence of AT-MSCs in SDFTs was evaluated by repeated examinations with standing low-field MRI in two horses and post-mortem in all horses with Prussian blue staining, fluorescence microscopy and with immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry using anti-GFP antibodies at 3, 5, 7 and 9 weeks after treatment.ResultsAT-MSCs labelled with SPIO particles were detectable in treated SDFTs during each MRI in T2*- and T1-weighted sequences until the end of the observation period. Post-mortem examinations revealed that all treated tendons contained high numbers of SPIO- and GFP-labelled cells.ConclusionsStanding low-field MRI has the potential to track SPIO-labelled AT-MSCs successfully. Histology, fluorescence microscopy, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry are efficient tools to detect labelled AT-MSCs after intralesional injection into surgically created equine SDFT lesions. Intralesional injection of 10 × 106 AT-MSCs leads to the presence of high numbers of AT-MSCs in and around surgically created tendon lesions for up to 9 weeks. Integration of injected AT-MSCs into healing tendon tissue is an essential pathway after intralesional administration. Injection techniques have to be chosen deliberately to avoid reflux of the cell substrate injected. In vivo low-field MRI may be used as a non-invasive tool to monitor homing and engraftment of AT-MSCs in horses with tendinopathy of the SDFT.
BackgroundAdipose tissue is a promising source of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for the treatment of tendon disease. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of a single intralesional implantation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSCs) on artificial lesions in equine superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFTs).MethodsDuring this randomized, controlled, blinded experimental study, either autologous cultured AT-MSCs suspended in autologous inactivated serum (AT-MSC-serum) or autologous inactivated serum (serum) were injected intralesionally 2 weeks after surgical creation of centrally located SDFT lesions in both forelimbs of nine horses. Healing was assessed clinically and with ultrasound (standard B-mode and ultrasound tissue characterization) at regular intervals over 24 weeks. After euthanasia of the horses the SDFTs were examined histologically, biochemically and by means of biomechanical testing.ResultsAT-MSC implantation did not substantially influence clinical and ultrasonographic parameters. Histology, biochemical and biomechanical characteristics of the repair tissue did not differ significantly between treatment modalities after 24 weeks. Compared with macroscopically normal tendon tissue, the content of the mature collagen crosslink hydroxylysylpyridinoline did not differ after AT-MSC-serum treatment (p = 0.074) while it was significantly lower (p = 0.027) in lesions treated with serum alone. Stress at failure (p = 0.048) and the modulus of elasticity (p = 0.001) were significantly lower after AT-MSC-serum treatment than in normal tendon tissue.ConclusionsThe effect of a single intralesional injection of cultured AT-MSCs suspended in autologous inactivated serum was not superior to treatment of surgically created SDFT lesions with autologous inactivated serum alone in a surgical model of tendinopathy over an observation period of 22 weeks. AT-MSC treatment might have a positive influence on collagen crosslinking of remodelling scar tissue. Controlled long-term studies including naturally occurring tendinopathies are necessary to verify the effects of AT-MSCs on tendon disease.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13287-017-0564-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
BackgroundSinusitis is a common disease in the horse. In human medicine it is described, that obstruction of the sinonasal communication plays a major role in the development of sinusitis. To get spatial sense of the equine specific communication ways between the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses, heads of 19 horses, aged 2 to 26 years, were analyzed using three-dimensional (3D) reformatted renderings of CT-datasets. Three-dimensional models were generated following manual and semi-automated segmentation. Before segmentation, the two-dimensional (2D) CT-images were verified against corresponding frozen sections of cadaveric heads.ResultsThree-dimensional analysis of the paranasal sinuses showed the bilateral existence of seven sinus compartments: rostral maxillary sinus, ventral conchal sinus, caudal maxillary sinus, dorsal conchal sinus, frontal sinus, sphenopalatine sinus and middle conchal sinus. The maxillary septum divides these seven compartments into two sinus systems: a rostral paranasal sinus system composed of the rostral maxillary sinus and the ventral conchal sinus and a caudal paranasal sinus system which comprises all other sinuses. The generated 3D models revealed a typically configuration of the sinonasal communication ways. The sinonasal communication started within the middle nasal meatus at the nasomaxillary aperture (Apertura nasomaxillaris), which opens in a common sinonasal channel (Canalis sinunasalis communis). This common sinonasal channel ramifies into a rostral sinonasal channel (Canalis sinunasalis rostralis) and a caudo-lateral sinonasal channel (Canalis sinunasalis caudalis). The rostral sinonasal channel ventilated the rostral paranasal sinus system, the caudo-lateral sinonasal channel opened into the caudal paranasal sinus system. The rostral sinonasal channel was connected to the rostral paranasal sinuses in various ways. Whereas, the caudal channel showed less anatomical variations and was in all cases connected to the caudal maxillary sinus. Volumetric measurements of the sinonasal channels showed no statistically significant differences (P <0.05) between the right and left side of the head.ConclusionsUnder physiologic conditions both paranasal sinus systems are connected to the nasal cavity by equine specific sinonasal channels. To resolve sinus disease it is aimed to maintain or even reconstruct the normal anatomy of the sinonasal communication by surgical intervention. Therefore, the presented 3D analyses may provide a useful basis.
The Miniature Shetland pony represents a horse breed with an extremely small body size. Clinical examination of a dwarf Miniature Shetland pony revealed a lowered size at the withers, malformed skull and brachygnathia superior. Computed tomography (CT) showed a shortened maxilla and a cleft of the hard and soft palate which protruded into the nasal passage leading to breathing difficulties. Pathological examination confirmed these findings but did not reveal histopathological signs of premature ossification in limbs or cranial sutures. Whole-genome sequencing of this dwarf Miniature Shetland pony and comparative sequence analysis using 26 reference equids from NCBI Sequence Read Archive revealed three probably damaging missense variants which could be exclusively found in the affected foal. Validation of these three missense mutations in 159 control horses from different horse breeds and five donkeys revealed only the aggrecan (ACAN)-associated g.94370258G>C variant as homozygous wild-type in all control samples. The dwarf Miniature Shetland pony had the homozygous mutant genotype C/C of the ACAN:g.94370258G>C variant and the normal parents were heterozygous G/C. An unaffected full sib and 3/5 unaffected half-sibs were heterozygous G/C for the ACAN:g.94370258G>C variant. In summary, we could demonstrate a dwarf phenotype in a miniature pony breed perfectly associated with a missense mutation within the ACAN gene.
Background Bovine frontonasal dysplasias like arhinencephaly, synophthalmia, cyclopia and anophthalmia are sporadic congenital facial malformations. In this study, computed tomography, necropsy, histopathological examinations and whole genome sequencing on an Illumina NextSeq500 were performed to characterize a stillborn Limousin calf with frontonasal dysplasia. In order to identify private genetic and structural variants, we screened whole genome sequencing data of the affected calf and unaffected relatives including parents, a maternal and paternal halfsibling. Results The stillborn calf exhibited severe craniofacial malformations. Nose and maxilla were absent, mandibles were upwardly curved and a median cleft palate was evident. Eyes, optic nerve and orbital cavities were not developed and the rudimentary orbita showed hypotelorism. A defect centrally in the front skull covered with a membrane extended into the intracranial cavity. Aprosencephaly affected telencephalic and diencephalic structures and cerebellum. In addition, a shortened tail was seen. Filtering whole genome sequencing data revealed a private frameshift variant within the candidate gene ZIC2 in the affected calf. This variant was heterozygous mutant in this case and homozygous wild type in parents, half-siblings and controls. Conclusions We found a novel ZIC2 frameshift mutation in an aprosencephalic Limousin calf. The origin of this variant is most likely due to a de novo mutation in the germline of one parent or during very early embryonic development. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first identified mutation in cattle associated with bovine frontonasal dysplasia.
BackgroundComputed tomography (CT) is a well-established imaging technique in the diagnostics of equine sinunasal disease. High-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming more readily available in equine veterinary medicine. MRI is appreciated for its superior ability to depict soft tissues with high contrast. To compare the established technique of CT in the depiction of the equine nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses and adjoining anatomical structures to 3 Tesla MRI the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses of 13 horses were examined using CT and 3 Tesla MRI.ResultsComparison of CT and MRI images of the paranasal sinuses, nasal cavities and adjoining anatomical structures of 13 healthy horses showed that the inter-rater agreement for the CT examinations was higher than the inter-rater agreement for the MRI examinations. CT images proved to be significantly higher rated for the depiction of cortical bone, while MR images were higher rated for the appearance of soft tissues. For the distinction between different tissues or anatomical structures the MR images were significantly higher rated and especially T2-weighted sequences allowed for a good distinction between delicate structures. None of the MRI sequences produced an exact depiction of the lumen of the nasomaxillary aperture while the CT with a bone window allowed for a satisfying visualization.ConclusionThe CT is an imaging modality that produces high quality images within a short time when examining equine nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses. The strength of CT lies in the high quality depiction of large and delicate structures with high radiodensity. High field MRI with a field strength of 3 Tesla produces images of high quality that allow for the distinction of delicate soft tissue structures but requires long examination times. The high field strength of 3 Tesla magnetic imaging introduces new possibilities in tomographic soft tissue imaging of the equine head but cannot match up with the CT in terms of visualization of bone and total examination duration. Therefore, clinicians should consider the exact imaging needs in clinical cases to decide whether a single examination or a combination of both imaging techniques may promise the greatest benefit for the patient.
BackgroundThe bulldog calf syndrome is a lethal form of the inherited congenital chondrodysplasias. Among the progeny of the polled Holstein bull Energy P cases of lethal chondrodysplasia were observed. Pedigrees of the cases and the frequency of 3/8 cases among the offspring of Energy P at our teaching and experimental farm Ruthe (LuFG Ruthe) supported the assumption of a germline mutation with a mosaic of normal and defective sperm.ResultsAll three malformed calves were examined using necropsy, histopathology and computed tomography scanning. The phenotypic appearance of the affected calves was highly similar; they presented with severe disproportionate dwarfism and reduced body weight. The syndrome was characterized by brachygnathia superior, bilateral palatoschisis, shortening and compression of the body due to malformed vertebrae, in their size reduced and malformed ribs and reduced length of the long bones of the limbs. The bones had small irregular diaphyses and enlarged epiphyses. Whole genome sequencing of one bulldog calf, sperm of its sire Energy P and a normal progeny of Energy P identified a deleterious missense mutation (g.32476082G > A, c.2986G > A, ss2019324576) within COL2A1 on bovine chromosome (BTA) 5. Sanger sequencing confirmed the ss2019324576 variant in the affected calves and sperm of Energy P. This mutation is located within the collagen triple helix repeat and causes an exchange of glycine to serine (p.996G > S) in COL2A1. This private single nucleotide variant (SNV) was present as a gonadal mosaic in sperm of the bull. All affected calves were in a heterozygous state whereas normal half-siblings and all dams of the progeny from Energy P were missing this SNV. Validation in polled Holstein bulls and normal Holstein calves randomly sampled from several herds and from the LuFG Ruthe confirmed this SNV as private.ConclusionsThe identified spontaneous missense mutation within COL2A1 is most likely the cause of lethal chondrodysplasia in the progeny of Energy P through a dominant negative effect. This example suggests that it would be beneficial to conduct whole genome sequencing of sperm from bulls widely used in artificial insemination in order to detect germline mosaicism.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s12864-017-4153-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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