The Cerambycidae family (Insecta: Coleoptera) has approximately 38 thousand species. In Brazil, more than 4,300 species and 1,050 genera are registered, and despite the ecological and agricultural importance of this family, no study has yet been done in the Cerrado of the Distrito Federal (Brazil). The objective of this study was to evaluate the richness and abundance of Cerambycidae in the Cerrado area using two types of fruits (banana and pineapple), fermented with sugarcane juice, as bait and to verify whether the richness is influenced by climate variables. The work was carried out in an area of the cerrado sensu stricto at Água Limpa Farm in the Distrito Federal. Beetles were collected weekly using 40 bait traps with two types of fruits that remained in the field for 12 uninterrupted months (November 2013 to October 2014). The traps were installed 1.50 m above the ground level, distributed in four 80 m transects, and spaced 20 m apart. A total of 1,599 individuals, belonging to 13 genera and different 19 species, were collected. The main species were as follows: Oxymerus basalis (Dalman, 1823) representing 78.3%, Retrachydes thoracicus thoracicus (Olivier, 1790) representing 9.9%, and Chydarteres bicolor (Fabricius, 1787) representing 4.5% of the total specimens collected. There was a significant difference in richness and abundance of Cerambycidae among the baits evaluated, with the pineapple bait presenting the highest values. The greatest number of individuals and species occurred soon after the first rains, especially in November. Temporal variation was confirmed through Rayleigh’s uniformity test, following the seasonality of the Cerrado, with the greatest number of individuals and species found in the rainy season. Temperature and humidity influenced the richness of cerambycid beetles. This is the first work carried out with pineapple fermented with sugarcane juice as bait to capture Cerambycidae, and this type of bait proved to be efficient for the collection of insects, comparable in efficiency to the synthetic baits that are normally used. All species collected were new distribution records for the Distrito Federal (Brazil).
Mark-release-recapture studies have been used to evaluate the dispersal ability of different insect species. In the field, we evaluated the dispersal ability of the soil pest species Phyllophaga capillata (Blanchard) (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) in soybean (Glycine max L.) crop, and the flight activity of this species under controlled conditions. Field studies were conducted on a soybean seed production farm in Planaltina/DF, Brazil. On four dates, adults of P. capillata were collected, sexed, marked and released in a soybean plot (~ 230 ha). Twelve light traps were set in three concentric circles, with four traps each, at distances of 50, 150 and 250 m from the point of adult release. Under controlled conditions, groups of adults (males and females) were separated into pots containing soil, and the flight ability of the specimens was evaluated daily for 72 h. The average recapture rate of adults was 1.93% for the four collection dates. The highest recapture rate was observed at a distance of 50 m, at the beginning and middle of the swarming period, and at 250 m at the end of the swarm. Males, in general, were more active than females and reached the greatest distance of displacement (250 m). Most specimens (69.5% of males and 52.9% of females) were prone to leave the ground on the three consecutive days of the study. These results provide insights for understanding the dispersal patterns of this pest species in agricultural landscapes.
Em primeiro lugar, gostaria de agradecer aos meus pais, Alfredo e Marlene, por todo apoio que me deram ao longo de toda minha vida, e por terem me proporcionado chegar à mais esta etapa, não medindo esforços para que eu alcançasse meus objetivos, principalmente no quesito educação.Em seguida, gostaria de agradecer minha orientadora, Dra. Marina Frizzas. A Profa. Marina é uma pessoa extremamente paciente, e aguentou meus deslizes, atrasos, pisadas na bola, falação no laboratório... mas quando necessário, soube cobrar resultados, sem nunca faltar com respeito. Por isso, para mim, a Profa. Marina não é apenas minha orientadora, e sim minha amiga. Sem dúvida, sem a orientação que tive, o presente trabalho nunca existiria.Ao Dr. Fernando Zagury Vaz-de-Mello (UFMT) pela identificação das espécies coletadas, essencial para os resultados do trabalho.Ao Dr. Charles Martins de Oliveira (Embrapa Cerrados) pela ajuda com as análises estatísticas, meu calcanhar de Aquiles, e pelas fotos das espécies mais coletadas.À minha grande amiga Juliane, que foi minha companheira de campo e de laboratório, inclusive aos sábados, acredita? E claro, também nas horas de descontração na mesa do bar.Aos meus amigos de laboratório e campo, Túlio, sempre me ajudando em todas as coletas e triagem do material, Marcela e Maycon, pela ajuda no campo do PNB, Thiara e João pela ajuda no campo do PNCV. Sem vocês, esse trabalho não teria ido para a frente. Na verdade, não teria nem saído do papel.Ao Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zoologia, e também à Universidade de Brasília (UnB), fornecendo não apenas o espaço físico, mas também um ensino de qualidade, com professores muito capacitados. Ao Dr. Ricardo Bomfim Machado coordenador do projeto "Bases para a monitoração da biodiversidade do Cerrado do Brasil Central -Rede ComCerrado (PPBio/Geoma)" por viabilizar a execução do projeto do qual este trabalho faz parte.
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