OBJECTIVE: A prospective, randomized study to compare patients with closed, multi-fragmented tibial diaphyseal fractures treated using one of two fixation methods undertaken during minimally invasive surgery: nonreamed interlocking intramedullary nails or bridging plates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five patients were studied; 22 patients were treated with bridging plates, 23 with interlocking nails without reaming. All fractures were Type B and C (according to the AO classification). RESULTS: Clinical and radiographic healing occurred in all cases. No cases of infection occurred. The healing time for patients who received nails was longer (4.32 weeks on average) than the healing time for those who received plates (P = 0.026). No significant differences were observed between the two methods regarding ankle mobility for patients in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The healing time was shorter with the bridging plate technique, although no significant functional differences were found.
Asking how prey respond to different species of predators helps understanding the repertoire of defenses prey exhibit. This approach may also add to the knowledge on the efficiency of prey′s defenses against each predator and allows studying the costs of being attacked by different predators. Here, we studied interactions between the predatory terrestrial flatworm Cephaloflexa bergi and the harvestman Mischonyx cuspidatus. The flatworm quickly strikes at the prey′s leg with its head, then crawls towards the prey′s body releasing mucus and thus subdues the harvestman. Harvestmen may release defensive chemicals and pinch the flatworm with spines on legs IV, sometimes cutting the predator in two pieces. We also experimentally assessed the benefits of harvestmen′ defense and the cost of being attacked by testing whether the chemical defense of the harvestmen is efficient against the flatworm and whether the harvestmen that had survived a flatworm attack would have their locomotion abilities hampered. Both hypotheses were corroborated. Previous studies on interactions between harvestmen and other predators, such as spiders and scorpions, had shown that defensive secretions and mechanical retaliation were seldom used and were often ineffective. Our results point to the exact opposite and suggest that different predators exert different selective pressures culminating in the array of defenses exhibited by the prey.
Living representatives of the Neotropical genus Choeradoplana Graff, 1896 (Geoplaninae, Tricladida, Platyhelminthes) are easily recognized by the typical shape of the head which is laterally expanded, rolled-up, and ventrally provided with two glandular cushions. In this study, the morphology and phylogeny (cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene) of several species of land planarians are taxonomically investigated. Four of the six species studied are new to science, namely: Ch. eudoxiae Silva & Carbayo, sp. nov., Ch. claudioi Lago-Barcia & Carbayo, sp. nov., Ch. onae Lago-Barcia & Carbayo, sp. nov., and Ch. riutortae Lago-Barcia & Carbayo, sp. nov. The species Choeradoplana albonigra and Ch. eudoxiae deviate from the usual body shape pattern in that the head does not present lateral expansions nor glandular cushions, becoming indistinguishable from its sister genus Cephaloflexa. Pseudogeoplana tristriata (Schultze & Müller, 1857) is also redescribed from a newly collected specimen and was discovered to be a member of Choeradoplana. Graff (1899) also studied another specimen that was considered to be conspecific with P. tristriata; however, in this new it is concluded that it is not conspecific but rather a new species. The name Pseudogeoplana aevipandemiae Lago-Barcia & Carbayo, sp. nov. is suggested for Graff’s specimen.
In 2016, the type-material of ten of the 15 Brazilian land planarians (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Geoplanidae) described by Schirch (1929) was discovered deposited in the Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ). Schirch only described the external morphology of these species, all originally placed in the genus Geoplana. By the 1930s and 1950s Geoplana itatiayana, G. plana, and G. rezendei underwent taxonomic revision based on the study of non-type specimens. The remaining 12 species also underwent a taxonomic revision but only based on the literature. Current names of these species are Geoplana goettei, Pseudogeoplana arpi, Ps. blaseri, Ps. bonita, Ps. bresslaui, Ps. cardosi, Ps. doederleini, Ps. lumbricoides, Ps. obscura, Ps. riedeli, Ps. theresopolitana, and Ps. wetzeli. The species Geoplana maximiliani sensu Schirch (1929) was renamed as Ps. schirchi Ogren & Kawakatsu, 1990. The present study reports a taxonomic revision of seven of Schirch’s species using type material, namely Obama itatiayana, Pasipha plana, Pseudogeoplana arpi, Ps. bresslaui, Ps. doederleini, Ps. schirchi and Ps. wetzeli. Additional specimens of some of these species were also examined. Morphological data from histological preparations and from virtual sections were obtained through a non-destructive technique of X-ray computed microtomography (µCT). This approach resulted in the preservation of the entire body of at least one type-specimen of each species, and the holotype of Ps. bresslaui. Conspecificity of O. itatiayana and P. plana was confirmed, as previously reported in the literature. It is also proposed that Ps. bresslaui belongs to the genus Paraba, while the other species should remain in Pseudogeoplana, since type-specimens are either immature, poorly preserved or simply lost.
The study aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of digital radiographic systems for the diagnosis of proximal carious lesions. Extracted human teeth (3 canines, 3 premolars, and 3 molars) were submitted to one of three types of proximal lesions (demineralized area, cavity affecting the enamel alone, and cavity affecting enamel and dentin). Bitewing radiographs were obtained from each system (Sirona, Kodak, and Schick) and evaluated by 12 raters (4 dental students, 4 radiology specialists, and 4 dentists). The chi-squared test was used to determine the frequency of correct diagnoses among the different systems, raters, teeth, and types of lesion. Sensitivity and specificity regarding demineralized areas were calculated for each system. The frequencies of correct diagnoses were found: Schick (70.8%), Kodak (63.9%), Sirona (59.0%), specialists (69.4%), students (62.5%), dentists (61.8%), premolars (70.1%), canines (65.3%), and molars (58.3%). No significant differences were found among the different systems, raters, or teeth (P > 0.05). Sensitivity and specificity were 0.64 and 0.47 (Schick), 0.56 and 0.50 (Sirona), and 0.48 and 0.58 (Kodak). The most correct diagnoses were achieved using the Schick digital system on premolars and evaluated by specialists in radiology. The systems demonstrated low sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of demineralized areas.
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