Holocene environments have been reconstructed by multiproxy studies of an 850-cm-long core from Rio Curuá dating to >8000 14C yr B.P. The low-energy river lies in the eastern Amazon rain forest in the Caxiuanã National Forest Reserve, 350 km west of Belem in northern Brazil. Sedimentological, mineralogical, and geochemical dates demonstrate that the deposits correspond to two different environments, sediments of an active river before 8000 14C yr B.P. and later a passive river system. The pollen analytical results indicate four different local and regional Holocene paleoenvironmental periods: (1) a transition to a passive fluvial system and a well-drained terra firme (unflooded upland) Amazon rain forest with very limited development of inundated forests (várzea and igapó) (>7990–7030 14C yr B.P.); (2) a sluggish river with a local Mauritia palm-swamp and similar regional vegetation, as before (7030–5970 14C yr B.P.); (3) a passive river, forming shallow lake conditions and with still-abundant terra firme forest in the study region (5970–2470 14C yr B.P.); and (4) a blocked river with high water levels and marked increase of inundated forests during the last 2470 14C yr B.P. Increased charcoal during this last period suggests the first strong presence of humans in this region. The Atlantic sea level rise was probably the major factor in paleoenvironmental changes, but high water stands might also be due to greater annual rainfall during the late Holocene.
Several types of structures are observed in the Precambrian, Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks of theAmazon region, which represent the major features of the neotectonic framework developed since theMiocene. They controlled the sediment deposition of the Upper Tertiary and Quaternary, as well as haveinfluenced the development of the present landform patterns and drainage systems. Transpressive andtranstensive areas are recognized based on their nature and geometry, and related to two main episodes oftranscurrent displacement of Miocene/Pliocene and Upper Pleistocene /Recent ages. Sets of E-W, ENEWSWand NE-SW right-hand strike-slip faults are present in most of these areas. These sets are linked bynormal faults trending NW-SE and NNW-SSE, or by thrust faults trendig NE-SW and ENE-WSW,depending upon their geometry. Large areas with N-S trending younger normal faults are also observed.Earthquakes, the phenomenon of “fallen lands”, fluvial channels migration, hot springs, etc., are related toareas where some of these faults remain active. All these structures are related to an intraplate E-W righthandshear system induced by the rotation of South American Plate towards west.
Several archaeological black earth (ABE) sites occur in the Amazon region. They contain fragments of ceramic artifacts, which are very important for the archaeological purpose. In order to improve the archaeological study in the region we carried out a detailed mineralogical and chemical study of the fragments of ceramic artifacts found in the two ABE sites of CachoeiraPorteira, in the Lower Amazon Region. Their ceramics comprise the following tempers: cauixi, cariapé, sand, sand +feldspars, crushed ceramic and so on and are composed of quartz, clay equivalent material (mainly burned kaolinite), feldspars, hematite, goethite, maghemite, phosphates, anatase, and minerals of Mn and Ba. Cauixi and cariapé, siliceous organic compounds, were found too. The mineralogical composition and the morphology of their grains indicate a saprolite (clayey material rich on quartz) derived from fine-grained felsic igneous rocks or sedimentary rocks as source material for ceramic artifacts, where silica-rich components such cauixi, cariapé and/or sand (feldspar and rock fragments) were intentionally added to them. The high content of (Al,Fe)-phosphates, amorphous to low crystalline, must be product of the contact between the clayey matrix of pottery wall and the hot aqueous solution formed during the daily cooking of animal foods (main source of phosphor). The phosphate crystallization took place during the discharge of the potteries put together with waste of organic material from animal and vegetal origin, and leaving to the formation of the ABE-soil profile.
KEY WORDSTerra Preta, Black Earth, Archaeological ceramic fragment, Lower Amazon, Phosphates, Mineralogy.Artefatos cerâmicos em sítios arqueológios com terra preta na região do baixo Amazonas, Brasil: Mineralogia.
Sítios arqueológicos com Terra Preta, denominados de Terra Preta de Índio ou ainda Terra Preta
RESUMOPara avaliar o impacto das variações climáticas, de curta duração, sobre os ecossistemas de manguezais amazônicos, foi estudada a costa nordeste do Pará entre as coordenadas: 00º 32' 30" S / 00º 52' 30" S e 47º 28' 45" W / 47º 45' 00" W. Foram amostrados os sedimentos, águas superficiais e intersticiais com medidas de salinidade, potencial hidrogeniônico (pH), potencial de oxiredução (Eh) e determinações mineralógicas por difração de raios X e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Na água foram determinados o conteúdo de sulfetos dissolvidos, sulfato e cloreto, além da alcalinidade, sílica, ortofosfato, sódio, potássio, cálcio e magnésio, em meses chuvosos e de estiagem, sob marés de sizígia e quadratura. As variações sazonais do cloreto nas águas intersticiais mostram concentrações mais elevadas na estiagem que no período chuvoso, enquanto em superfície são mais elevadas nas marés de quadratura (período chuvoso) e de sizígia (período de estiagem). Os sulfetos dissolvidos foram encontrados em quantidades detectáveis somente a partir da profundidade de 10 cm o que indica exposição dos sedimentos aos fluxos advectivos de oxigênio atmosférico. Os teores de ferro dissolvido aumentam entre 0-10 cm e o potencial hidrogeniônico (pH) tende à neutralidade. A saturação das águas intersticiais na estiagem é indicada pelos minerais evaporíticos: gipso e halita. As variações pluviométricas são responsáveis por graduais mudanças nos teores de nutrientes e nas propriedades físico-químicas (pH, Eh e salinidade) das águas superficiais e intersticiais, no controle do equilíbrio salino das águas costeiras, na salinização e dessalinização dos sedimentos e na distribuição da vegetação de mangue no estuário. A exposição prolongada dos sedimentos na estiagem e as características morfológicas contribuem decisivamente para a oxidação total ou parcial dos sedimentos em superfície, o que modifica a mineralogia e as características químicas e físico-químicas das águas intersticiais.PalavRaS-chavE: mineralogia, geoquímica, água intersticial, manguezais
Effects of seasonal variations' on the mangroves' waters and sediments of the Marapanim estuary, northeast coast of Para State aBSTRacTTo evaluate the short period climatic variations impact over Amazonic mangrove ecosystem, studies were carried out on the northeast coast of Para State. Sediments, surficial and interstitial waters were collected and examinated throughout salinity, pH and Eh (mV) measurements; mineralogical determination using X-ray diffraction and electronic microscopy. Chemical analysis of dissolved sulfides, sulfate and chloride, among others were made in samples collected seasonally, under spring and neap tides conditions. The seasonal chloride variations in the interstitial waters shows 20 g/l during the dry season and less of 10 g/l in the season; the concentration in surficial are higher at neap tides (rainy season) and spring tide (dry season). The dissolved sulfides were found only at 10 cm, indicating sediment exposure to the atmospheric oxygen advectives fluxes...
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.