Circular RNAs are a large group of RNAs whose cellular functions are still being investigated. We recently proposed that circSMARCA5 acts as sponge for the splicing factor Serine and Arginine Rich Splicing Factor 1 (SRSF1) in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). After demonstrating by RNA immunoprecipitation a physical interaction between SRFS1 and circSMARCA5, we assayed by real-time PCR in a cohort of 31 GBM biopsies and 20 unaffected brain parenchyma controls (UC) the expression of total, pro-angiogenic (Iso8a) and anti-angiogenic (Iso8b) mRNA isoforms of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA), a known splicing target of SRSF1. The Iso8a to Iso8b ratio: (i) increased in GBM biopsies with respect to UC (p-value < 0.00001); (ii) negatively correlated with the expression of circSMARCA5 (r-value = −0.46, p-value = 0.006); (iii) decreased in U87-MG overexpressing circSMARCA5 with respect to negative control (p-value = 0.0055). Blood vascular microvessel density, estimated within the same biopsies, negatively correlated with the expression of circSMARCA5 (r-value = −0.59, p-value = 0.00001), while positively correlated with that of SRSF1 (r-value = 0.38, p-value = 0.00663) and the Iso8a to Iso8b ratio (r-value = 0.41, p-value = 0.0259). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that GBM patients with low circSMARCA5 expression had lower overall and progression free survival rates than those with higher circSMARCA5 expression (p-values = 0.033, 0.012, respectively). Our data convincingly suggest that circSMARCA5 is an upstream regulator of pro- to anti-angiogenic VEGFA isoforms ratio within GBM cells and a highly promising GBM prognostic and prospective anti-angiogenic molecule.
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have recently emerged as a new class of RNAs, highly enriched in the brain and very stable within cells, exosomes and body fluids. To analyze their involvement in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) pathogenesis, we assayed the expression of twelve circRNAs, physiologically enriched in several regions of the brain, through real-time PCR in a cohort of fifty-six GBM patient biopsies and seven normal brain parenchymas. We focused on hsa_circ_0001445 (circSMARCA5): it was significantly downregulated in GBM biopsies as compared to normal brain tissues (p-value < 0.00001, student’s t-test), contrary to its linear isoform counterpart that did not show any differential expression (p-value = 0.694, student’s t-test). Analysis of a public dataset revealed a negative correlation between the expression of circSMARCA5 and glioma’s histological grade, suggesting its potential negative role in the progression to malignancy. Overexpressing circSMARCA5 in U87MG cells significantly decreased their migration, but not their proliferation rate. In silico scanning of circSMARCA5 sequence revealed an enrichment in binding motifs for several RNA binding proteins (RBPs), specifically involved in splicing. Among them, serine and arginine rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1), a splicing factor known to be a positive controller of cell migration and known to be overexpressed in GBM, was predicted to bind circSMARCA5 by three different prediction tools. Direct interaction between circSMARCA5 and SRSF1 is supported by enhanced UV crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (eCLIP) data for SRSF1 in K562 cells from Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE). Consistently, U87MG overexpressing circSMARCA5 showed an increased expression of serine and arginine rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3) RNA isoform containing exon 4, normally skipped in a SRSF1-dependent manner, resulting in a non-productive non-sense mediated decay (NMD) substrate. Interestingly, SRSF3 is known to interplay with two other splicing factors, polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1 (PTBP1) and polypyrimidine tract binding protein 2 (PTBP2), that positively regulate glioma cells migration. Collectively, our data show circSMARCA5 as a promising druggable tumor suppressor in GBM and suggest that it may exert its function by tethering the RBP SRSF1.
The RNA that is packaged into exosomes is termed as exosomal-shuttle RNA (esRNA); however, the players, which take this subset of RNA (esRNA) into exosomes, remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that RNA binding proteins (RBPs) could serve as key players in this mechanism, by making complexes with RNAs and transporting them into exosomes during the biosynthesis of exosomes. Here, we demonstrate the presence of 30 RBPs in exosomes that were shown to form RNA–RBP complexes with both cellular RNA and exosomal-RNA species. To assess the involvement of these RBPs in RNA-transfer into exosomes, the gene transcripts encoding six of the proteins identified in exosomes (HSP90AB1, XPO5, hnRNPH1, hnRNPM, hnRNPA2B1, and MVP) were silenced by siRNA and subsequent effect on esRNA was assessed. A significant reduction of total esRNA was observed by post-transcriptional silencing of MVP, compared to other RBPs. Furthermore, to confirm the binding of MVP with esRNA, a biotinylated-MVP was transiently expressed in HEK293F cells. Higher levels of esRNA were recovered from MVP that was eluted from exosomes of transfected cells, as compared to those of non-transfected cells. Our data indicate that these RBPs could end up in exosomes together with RNA molecules in the form of RNA–ribonucleoprotein complexes, which could be important for the transport of RNAs into exosomes and the maintenance of RNAs inside exosomes. This type of maintenance may favor the shuttling of RNAs from exosomes to recipient cells in the form of stable complexes.
Uveal melanoma (UM) represents approximately 5-6% of all melanoma diagnoses and up to 50% of patients succumb to their disease. Although several methods are available, accurate diagnosis is not always easily feasible because of potential accidents (e.g., intraocular hemorrhage). Based on the assumption that the profile of circulating miRNAs is often altered in human cancers, we verified whether UM patients showed different vitreous humor (VH) or serum miRNA profiles with respect to healthy controls. By using TaqMan Low Density Arrays, we analyzed 754 miRNAs from VH, vitreal exosomes, and serum of 6 UM patients and 6 healthy donors: our data demonstrated that the UM VH profile was unique and only partially overlapping with that from serum of the same patients. Whereas, 90% of miRNAs were shared between VH and vitreal exosomes, and their alterations in UM were statistically overlapped with those of VH and vitreal exosomes, suggesting that VH alterations could result from exosomal dysregulation. We report 32 miRNAs differentially expressed in UM patients in at least 2 different types of samples analyzed. We validated these data on an independent cohort of 12 UM patients. Most alterations were common to VH and vitreal exosomes (e.g., upregulation of miR-21,-34 a,-146a). Interestingly, miR-146a was upregulated in the serum of UM patients, as well as in serum exosomes. Upregulation of miR-21 and miR-146a was also detected in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded UM, suggesting that VH or serum alterations in UM could be the consequence of disregulation arising from tumoral cells. Our findings suggest the possibility to detect in VH and serum of UM patients "diagnostic" miRNAs released by the affected eye: based on this, miR-146a could be considered a potential circulating marker of UM.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in people younger than 45 in Western countries. Despite many studies, no reliable biomarkers have been found to assess TBI severity and predict recovery. MicroRNA (miRNA) profiling has become widely used to identify biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Through use of the TaqMan Array Human MicroRNA A+B Cards, the expression of 754 miRNAs was analyzed in serum of five mild TBI (mTBI) patients with extra-cranial injury (EC), five severe TBI (sTBI) patients with EC, and five healthy volunteers (HV) at 1 day and 15 days post-injury. The aim was to find candidate biomarkers able to discriminate between mTBI and sTBI. Following this, it was possible to select 10 miRNAs for further study in an enlarged validation cohort of 120 patients by using single TaqMan assays at the following time-points: T0-1 h, T4-12 h, T48-72 h, and 15 days from the injury. Analysis revealed two miRNAs (miR-425-5p and miR-502) that were significantly downregulated (p < 0.05) in mTBI at early time-points and are ideal candidates for diagnosis of mTBI, and two miRNAs (miR-21 and miR-335) that were significantly upregulated (p < 0.01) and are valid biomarkers for the diagnosis of sTBI. In addition, miR-425-5p was a strong predictor of 6-month outcome at T0-1 h and T4-12 h, while miR-21 was predictive of the outcome at T4-12 h. The panel of selected miRNAs shows promise as biomarkers to discriminate mTBI from sTBI. In addition, the selected miRNAs represent new potential therapeutic targets.
Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder which may be misdiagnosed with atypical conditions such as Multiple System Atrophy (MSA), due to overlapping clinical features. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs with a key role in post-transcriptional gene regulation. We hypothesized that identification of a distinct set of circulating miRNAs (cmiRNAs) could distinguish patients affected by PD from MSA and healthy individuals. Results. Using TaqMan Low Density Array technology, we analyzed 754 miRNAs and found 9 cmiRNAs differentially expressed in PD and MSA patients compared to healthy controls. We also validated a set of 4 differentially expressed cmiRNAs in PD and MSA patients vs. controls. More specifically, miR-339-5p was downregulated, whereas miR-223*, miR-324-3p, and mir-24 were upregulated in both diseases. We found cmiRNAs specifically deregulated in PD (downregulation of miR-30c and miR-148b) and in MSA (upregulation of miR-148b). Finally, comparing MSA and PD, we identified 3 upregulated cmiRNAs in MSA serum (miR-24, miR-34b, miR-148b). Conclusions. Our results suggest that cmiRNA signatures discriminate PD from MSA patients and healthy controls and may be considered specific, non-invasive biomarkers for differential diagnosis.
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs) contribute to the onset of many neoplasias through RNA-RNA competitive interactions; in addition, they could be secreted by cancer cells into biological fluids, suggesting their potential diagnostic application. By analyzing the expression of 17 lncRNAs and 31 circRNAs in biopsies and serum exosomes from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients through qRT-PCR, we detected CCAT1, CCAT2, HOTAIR, and UCA1 upregulation and CDR1AS, MALAT1, and TUG1 downregulation in biopsies. In serum exosomes, UCA1 was downregulated, while circHIPK3 and TUG1 were upregulated. Combined receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of TUG1:UCA1 and circHIPK3:UCA1 showed high values of sensitivity and specificity. Through in vitro (i.e., RNA silencing and mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK] inhibition) and in silico analyses (i.e., expression correlation and RNA-RNA-binding prediction), we found that UCA1 could (1) be controlled by MAPKs through CEBPB; (2) sequester miR-135a, miR-143, miR-214, and miR-1271, protecting ANLN, BIRC5, IPO7, KIF2A, and KIF23 from microRNA (miRNA)-induced degradation; and (3) interact with mRNA 3′-UTRs, preventing miRNA binding. UCA1 and its co-regulated antisense LINC01764 could interact and reciprocally mask their own miRNA-binding sites. Functional enrichment analysis of the RNA-RNA network controlled by UCA1 suggested its potential involvement in cellular migration. The UCA1 regulatory axis would represent a promising target to develop innovative RNA-based therapeutics against CRC.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.