BackgroundHeart failure (HF) is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Here, we identify biologically relevant transcripts that are significantly altered in the early phase of myocardial infarction and are associated with the development of post-myocardial infarction HF.MethodsWe collected peripheral blood samples from patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI): n = 111 and n = 41 patients from the study and validation groups, respectively. Control groups comprised patients with a stable coronary artery disease and without a history of myocardial infarction. Based on plasma NT-proBNP level and left ventricular ejection fraction parameters the STEMI patients were divided into HF and non-HF groups. Microarrays were used to analyze mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from the study group at four time points and control group. Microarray results were validated by RT-qPCR using whole blood RNA from the validation group.ResultsSamples from the first three time points (admission, discharge, and 1 month after AMI) were compared with the samples from the same patients collected 6 months after AMI (stable phase) and with the control group. The greatest differences in transcriptional profiles were observed on admission and they gradually stabilized during the follow-up. We have also identified a set of genes the expression of which on the first day of STEMI differed significantly between patients who developed HF after 6 months of observation and those who did not. RNASE1, FMN1, and JDP2 were selected for further analysis and their early up-regulation was confirmed in HF patients from both the study and validation groups. Significant correlations were found between expression levels of these biomarkers and clinical parameters. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves indicated a good prognostic value of the genes chosen.ConclusionsThis study demonstrates an altered gene expression profile in PBMCs during acute myocardial infarction and through the follow-up. The identified gene expression changes at the early phase of STEMI that differentiated the patients who developed HF from those who did not could serve as a convenient tool contributing to the prognosis of heart failure.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13073-015-0149-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Malignant gliomas represent the most devastating group of brain tumors in adults, among which glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) exhibits the highest malignancy rate. Despite combined modality treatment, GBM recurs and is invariably fatal. A further insight into the molecular background of gliomagenesis is required to improve patient outcomes. The primary aim of this study was to gain broad information on the miRNA expression pattern in malignant gliomas, mainly GBM. We investigated the global miRNA profile of malignant glioma tissues with miRNA microarrays, deep sequencing and meta-analysis. We selected miRNAs that were most frequently deregulated in glioblastoma tissues, as well as in peritumoral areas, in comparison with normal human brain. We identified candidate miRNAs associated with the progression from glioma grade III to glioma grade IV. The meta-analysis of miRNA profiling studies in GBM tissues summarizes the past and recent advances in the investigation of the miRNA signature in GBM versus noncancerous human brain and provides a comprehensive overview. We propose a list of 35 miRNAs whose expression is most frequently deregulated in GBM patients and of 30 miRNA candidates recognized as novel GBM biomarkers.
BackgroundDespite a substantial progress in diagnosis and therapy, acute myocardial infarction (MI) is a major cause of mortality in the general population. A novel insight into the pathophysiology of myocardial infarction obtained by studying gene expression should help to discover novel biomarkers of MI and to suggest novel strategies of therapy. The aim of our study was to establish gene expression patterns in leukocytes from acute myocardial infarction patients.Methods and ResultsTwenty-eight patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were included. The blood was collected on the 1st day of myocardial infarction, after 4–6 days, and after 6 months. Control group comprised 14 patients with stable coronary artery disease, without history of myocardial infarction. Gene expression analysis was performed with Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST microarrays and GCS3000 TG system. Lists of genes showing altered expression levels (fold change >1.5, p<0.05) were submitted to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Gene lists from each group were examined for canonical pathways and molecular and cellular functions. Comparing acute phase of MI with the same patients after 6 months (stable phase) and with control group we found 24 genes with changed expression. In canonical analysis three pathways were highlighted: signaling of PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), IL-10 and IL-6 (interleukin 10 and 6).ConclusionsIn the acute phase of STEMI, dozens of genes from several pathways linked with lipid/glucose metabolism, platelet function and atherosclerotic plaque stability show altered expression. Up-regulation of SOCS3 and FAM20 genes in the first days of myocardial infarction is observed in the vast majority of patients.
Poor storability of recalcitrant seeds is due to their inability to tolerate low moisture content. Understanding the processes underlying their recalcitrance is a prerequisite to developing a maintenance strategy and prolonging their lifespan. Multiple studies have investigated the differences between orthodox (desiccation-tolerant) and recalcitrant (desiccation-sensitive) seeds. Information on epigenetic regulation, however, is lacking and thus limits our understanding of the processes defining the physiology of seeds. In the present comparative study, changes in the global levels of 5-methylcytosine (m5C) in orthodox and recalcitrant seeds of Acer platanoides L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. were characterized during progressive stages of severe drying. Concomitant with their differential sensitivity to desiccation stress, we demonstrate variation in the response of embryonic axes and cotyledons to water deficit at the level of DNA methylation. Results indicate that desiccation-induced changes in m5C are both tissue- and seed category-specific and are highly correlated with recalcitrant seed viability. Moreover, we demonstrate that m5C global changes in response to desiccation are not retained in DNA isolated from seedlings, except in seedlings that are derived from strongly desiccated orthodox seeds (moisture content of 3.5%). Finally, the potential utilization of m5C status as a universal seed viability marker is discussed.
In patients with Ovarian Cancer (OvCa) exosomes released by tumor cells are present in the plasma and could be involved in tumor progression. This study examines the association between the exosome presence/protein content in plasma of OvCa patients and disease outcome, response to standard therapy and/or tumorresistance to therapies in patients studied at diagnosis and also serially during and after therapy.
Design and methods:
Exosomes were purified from OvCa patients’ plasma (n=22), patients with benign tumors (n=10) or (n=10) healthy controls (NC) using ultracentrifugation. Exosomes were visualized by scanning electron microscopy. Their protein content was measured. The presence of MAGE 3/6 and TGF-β1 in exosomes was evaluated in Western blots.
The OvCa patients’ plasma contained higher levels of exosomal proteins (p<0.05) compared to those isolated from plasma of patients with benign tumors or NC. Exosomes isolated from OvCa patients’s plasma carried TGF-β1 and MAGE3/6, which distinguished OvCa patients from those with benign tumors and NC. High protein levels of exosomes were seen in newly diagnosed patients; however in advanced stages of OvCa patients the protein content of isolated exosomes was significantly higher than that of early stages. The exosome levels variably changed during/after chemotherapy, and correlations between the changes in exosomal protein levels and clinical data suggested that the protein content of exosomes might be useful in predicting responses to therapy and prognosis in OvCa patients.
Analysis of plasma exosomes levels offers a novel approach to diagnosis and monitoring response to therapies in OvCa patients.
The effects of storage and deep desiccation on structural changes of DNA in orthodox seeds are poorly characterized. In this study we analyzed the 5-methylcytosine (m5C) global content of DNA isolated from seeds of common pear (Pyrus communis L.) that had been subjected to extreme desiccation, and the seedlings derived from these seeds. Germination and seedling emergence tests were applied to determine seed viability after their desiccation. In parallel, analysis of the global content of m5C in dried seeds and DNA of seedlings obtained from such seeds was performed with a 2D TLC method. Desiccation of fresh seeds to 5.3% moisture content (mc) resulted in a slight reduction of DNA methylation, whereas severe desiccation down to 2–3% mc increased DNA methylation. Strong desiccation of seeds resulted in the subsequent generation of seedlings of shorter height. A 1-year period of seed storage induced a significant increase in the level of DNA methylation in seeds. It is possible that alterations in the m5C content of DNA in strongly desiccated pear seeds reflect a reaction of desiccation-tolerant (orthodox) seeds to severe desiccation. Epigenetic changes were observed not only in severely desiccated seeds but also in 3-month old seedlings obtained from these seeds. With regard to seed storage practices, epigenetic assessment could be used by gene banks for early detection of structural changes in the DNA of stored seeds.
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